Rad Bio Ch. 8,9,10

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Ch.8 Vertical Cell Renewal System

Question Answer
What are the 3 types of Renewal Systems for cells?Vertical (Fast), Horizontal (Slow), Nonrenewal
What Cells are most radiosensitive?Stem Cells
Why are Stem Cells so Radio-sensitive?They are rapidly dividing and undifferentiated
What is an example of a vertical Cell Renewal cell?Hematopoietic
What is another name for Stem Cells?Vegetative Intermitotic
When the replacement rate is equal to the loss rate, what is this called?Self-maintaining system
What are some examples of Vertical Renewal Systems?Lining cells of intestinal tract, bone marrow cells, skin (epidermis), and male gonads (testes)
Can mature cells in vertical systems reproduce themselves?No
Once Vertical cells are differentiated, where are they found?Circulatory system or in blood supply
Where are Multipotent Cells found?Red Bone Marrow (adults);long bones; flat bones; sternum;ilium of pelvis
How long do Red Blood cells live?120 Days (4 months)
How long does it take Red Blood Cells to decline?110 -120 days
How long does it take to see a drop in red blood cells after radiation therapy?3 months
How long doe Granulocytes live?About 2 days

Vertical Cell Renewal System Cont./Intestinal

Question Answer
How long do Platelets live after Rad therapy?About 6 days
How long do Lymphocytes live after Rad Therapy?1-6 hours
What is another name for Stem Cell Compartment?Proliferating Compartment
What is another name for Mature Compartment?Functioning Compartment
What compartment are Villi Cells in?Mature (Functioning) Compartment
What do Villi do, and where are they located?Absorb nutrients; Small Intestines
Are Villi Senile Cells?Yes
In the Small Intestines, what are the most Radiosensitive Cells?Crypt Cells
What Kind of Cells are Goblet and Chief Cells?Mature Cells (do not Divide)
What is Malena?Tarry dark bloody stools
What is Hematemesis? :Vomitting of blood, (Intestinal wall starts to hemorrhage)
Question Answer
What is Tenesmus?Cramping or Straining

Vertical Cell Renewal System Cont./Sperm Cells

Question Answer
Where are Stem Cells located in Testicular Tubes?Along the periphery to Central Area
List the Succession of Sperm cellsSpermatogonium; Primary Spermatocyte; Secondary Spermatocyte; Spermatid; Spermatozoa
What are the Connective tissues called?Sertoli
What are the most radiosensitive sperm cells called?Spermatogonium
Can Sertoli Cells divide?Yes
Are Spermatogenic and mature Cells replaced?No, they just remain damaged
What happens to the sertoli cells after prolonged radiation?They increase in numbers

Vertical Cell Renewal

Question Answer
What gives rise to other cells in this system?Oogonium
What produces oogonium in this system?Follicular Cells
What happens when follicular cells are used up?Menopause (changes hormone levels)
Are follicular cells stems cells?Yes
What are the most radiosensitive cells for Egg cells?Follicular

Skin Cells

Question Answer
The Cornified Layer of skin cells is made out of what?Dead skin cells
In the skin, what are the most radiosensitive cells?Basal Cells