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Quiz 8B

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andriyg81's version from 2018-10-10 21:44

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Question Answer
Viruses are associated with all of the following cancers except:
- lung cancer.
- lymphoma.
- liver cancer.
- Kaposi sarcoma.
- lung cancer.
There is no link between viral infection and the development of lung cancer.
The process of triggering new blood vessel formation in a tumor is called:
- erythropoiesis.
- atherosclerosis.
- seeding.
- angiogenesis.
- angiogenesis.
Angiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels. Angiogenic factors are secreted by cancer cells to promote the development of new blood vessels to support the growing tumor.
Cancer cells ensure adequate supply of oxygen and nutrients by releasing:
- angiogenic factors.
- telomerase.
- lysosomal enzymes.
- autocrine growth factors.
- angiogenic factors.
Angiogenic factors are secreted by cancer cells to promote the development of new blood vessels to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the growing tumor.
Anemia in individuals with cancer can be the result of all of the following except:
- decreased erythropoietin.
- chronic bleeding.
- fatigue.
- malignant cells in the bone marrow.
- fatigue.
Anemia can be the result of chronic bleeding, severe malnutrition, malignant cells in the bone marrow, decreased production of erythropoietin, and, most commonly, chemotherapeutic drugs that are toxic to the bone marrow. Fatigue can result from anemia, but it does not cause anemia.
Leukopenia from cancer or chemotherapy treatment increases an individual's risk for:
- infection.
- autoimmune disease.
- bleeding.
- allergic reactions.
- infection.
Leukopenia, which is manifested by a decreased white blood cell (leukocyte) count, increases an individual's risk for infection and sepsis.
The substance responsible for cancer cells' ability to continually divide (immortality) is:
- growth factors.
- apoptosis signals.
- tumor markers.
- telomerase.
- telomerase.
The telomere in normal cells caps the end of each chromosome and prevents unlimited cell division. Cancer cells, like embryonic cells, produce an enzyme called telomerase that helps maintain the telomere and allows the cell to achieve immortality.
One way that a tumor suppressor gene can become inactivated in the absence of mutation or deletion is through gene:
- amplification.
- splicing.
- translocation.
- silencing.
- silencing.
Through gene silencing, a tumor suppressor gene can be shut off in the absence of mutation or deletion.
Mechanisms that cause cancer pain include all of the following except:
- release of pain-inducing chemicals.
- pressure on tissues and nerve endings.
- metastases to bone.
- cancer cells residing in lymph nodes.
- cancer cells residing in lymph nodes.
Some of the ways that cancer can cause pain include pressure on tissues and nerve endings; invasion of tissues and nerve endings; release of pain-inducing chemicals; obstruction of gastrointestinal or urinary systems; metastases to bone; infectious complications, such as mouth ulcers; and complications of treatment (surgery, toxic drugs, radiation).
Which of the following factors plays a role in organ tropism?
- All of the above
- Presence of certain growth factors or hormones
- Preferential adherence to the surface of certain target cells
- Presence of chemotactic factors
- All of the above
The preferential metastatic growth of cancer cells in certain organs, known as organ tropism, is determined by preferential adherence to the surface of certain target cells and the presence of certain growth factors, hormones, or chemotactic factors that attract the cancer cells to the tissue.
The normal function of tumor suppressor genes in an individual without cancer is to:
- stimulate cell replication.
- control production of anti-growth signals.
- prevent apoptosis.
- prevent cancer-causing mutations.
- control production of anti-growth signals.
Normally, tumor suppressor genes control the production of anti-growth signals, thus preventing tumor growth.
Survival from breast cancer is directly correlated to the:
- degree of nausea and vomiting side effects from chemotherapy.
- amount of seeding in the peritoneal cavity.
- number of involved lymph nodes.
- amount of pain an individual incurs.
- number of involved lymph nodes.
Increased lymph node involvement is correlated to higher mortality rates from breast cancer.
Tumor markers can be found in:
- urine.
- blood.
- cerebrospinal fluid.
- all of the above.
- all of the above.
Tumor markers are biologic substances produced by cancer cells and can be found in the blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and urine.
Apart from diminished physical energy, cancer-related fatigue can manifest in which of the following ways?
- Mood changes
- Muscle weakness
- All of the above
- Diminished intellectual performance
- All of the above
Cancer-related fatigue can manifest in a variety of ways, including diminished intellectual performance, muscle weakness, and mood changes.
Individual response to pain depends on which of the following factors?
- Physiologic
- All of the above
- Cultural
- Psychologic
- All of the above
Cultural, psychologic, and physiologic factors all play a role in an individual's response to pain.
Which of the following cancers always arises from an initial mutation in the blood-forming cells of the bone marrow?
- Lymphoma
- Leukemia
- Osteosarcoma
- Carcinoma
- Leukemia
Leukemia always arises from an initial mutation in the blood-forming cells of the bone marrow.
Hair loss from chemotherapy treatment is a condition known as:
- sterility.
- erythema.
- alopecia.
- folliculitis.
- alopecia.
Alopecia is hair loss from chemotherapy toxicity to the hair follicle.
The term used to describe an aggregation of cancer cells that accumulates faster than its nonmutant neighbors is clonal:
- stimulation.
- reunification.
- selection.
- expansion.
- expansion.
Clonal expansion is the term used to describe the rapid proliferation of a mutated cancer cell and its progeny. Cancer cells gain a selective advantage over their neighboring cells by proliferating and expanding at a faster rate.
Local tissue invasion by a tumor is accomplished by which of the following mechanisms?
- Release of cytokines by the tumor cells, which kills surrounding cells
- Release of free radicals by the tumor cells, which damages surrounding tissue
- Release of lytic enzymes by the tumor cells, which causes tissue degradation
- Release of antibodies by the tumor cells, which enhances phagocytosis of surrounding tissue
- Release of lytic enzymes by the tumor cells, which causes tissue degradation
Local invasion by a tumor is accomplished by the release of lytic enzymes, including proteases, collagenases, and lysosomal enzymes, which break down the matrix of surrounding tissues.
Tumor cell markers can be used to:
- screen individuals for cancer.
- assist in the diagnoses of tumor type.
- do all of the above.
- follow the clinical course of tumor development.
- do all of the above.
Tumor cell markers are used to screen individuals for cancer, diagnose tumor type, and follow the clinical course of tumor development.
Cervical carcinoma in situ:
- usually progresses to cervical cancer even after treatment.
- cannot be detected using available medical tests.
- refers to cervical cancer that has metastasized to the liver.
- contains cancer cells that have not invaded the surrounding tissue.
- contains cancer cells that have not invaded the surrounding tissue.
Carcinoma in situ refers to preinvasive epithelial cancers that have not penetrated the basement membrane.
All of the following dietary factors are known to be carcinogenic except:
- sulforaphane in cruciferous vegetables.
- amines found in charbroiled beef.
- aflatoxins.
- environmental xenobiotics.
- sulforaphane in cruciferous vegetables.
Sulforaphane in cruciferous vegetables (broccoli) may decrease the risk for some cancers.
Which of the following statements is true regarding tobacco smoke and cancer?
- Tobacco smoke causes cancer in multiple organs as the carcinogens are absorbed
- More than 30 carcinogens have been identified in cigarette smoke.
- Evidence indicates that tobacco smoke results only in cancer of the lung.
- Tobacco smoke causes cancer in multiple organs as the carcinogens circulate in the bloodstream.
- Tobacco smoke causes cancer in multiple organs as the carcinogens are absorbed
by the skin.
More than 60 carcinogens have been identified in cigarette smoke, and many are absorbed from the lung into the bloodstream, where they travel throughout the body.
Silica exposure increases the risk of cancer in which of the following organs?
- Liver
- Stomach
- Pancreas
- Lung
- Lung
Silica is associated with cancer of the lung.
Which of the following statements about alcohol intake and cancer risk is true?
- Alcohol intake increases the development of smoking-related cancers.
- Alcohol acts as an antioxidant, resulting in liver cancer.
- Alcohol intake is linked to the development of liver cancer only.
- Moderate amounts of alcohol intake protect against breast and colon cancer.
- Alcohol intake increases the development of smoking-related cancers.
It is hypothesized that alcohol interacts with smoke and functions as a solvent for the carcinogenic chemicals in tobacco.
Epigenetic factors play a role in which of the following?
- Gene expression
- All of the above
- Gene division
- Gene mutation
- Gene expression
Epigenetic factors are not related to changes in the DNA sequence but rather changes in gene expression that are subsequently perpetuated in cell division.
The concept of developmental plasticity indicates that:
- the body is able to destroy cancerous cells secondary to immune system function.
- the body can reverse inherited genetic mutations.
- the body can reverse acquired genetic mutations.
- the body is susceptible to environmental influences in utero and early life.
- the body is susceptible to environmental influences in utero and early life.
Developmental plasticity is the degree to which an organism is dependent on its environment. There is a growing body of knowledge that suggests that events in utero and early in life play a major role in an individual's susceptibility to a variety of diseases, including cancer.
Regular physical activity decreases the risk of cancer development by means of all of the following except:
- decreased endogenous hormones.
- decreased appetite-stimulating hormones.
- decreased obesity-related metabolic effects.
- decreased proinflammatory mediators.
- decreased appetite-stimulating hormones.
The mechanisms responsible for the protective effects of physical activity remain poorly understood but include decreased obesity-related metabolic effects, increased gut motility, decreased endogenous hormones, and decreased proinflammatory mediators.
Tobacco smoking accounts for how many deaths in the United States?
- 40 million
- Less than 3 million
- 5 million
- More than 20 million
- More than 20 million
It is estimated that tobacco smoking accounts for more than 20 million deaths in the United States.
Mutations in the breast cancer genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 increase the risk of cancer in which of the following organs?
- Breast and vagina
- Breast and uterus
- Breast and ovary
- Breast and cervix
- Breast and ovary
Breast cancer gene BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations describe inherited tumor-suppressor gene mutations that put the individual at increased risk for breast and ovarian cancer.
What role does estrogen play in the development of breast and endometrial cancer in women?
- Estrogen promotes growth in these estrogen-dependent organs.
- Estrogen is a potent carcinogen.
- Estrogen protects against these cancers.
- Estrogen blocks tumor suppressor genes.
- Estrogen promotes growth in these estrogen-dependent organs.
The growth factor effect of estrogen on breast and endometrial cells is linked to the development of cancer in these organs.
Mesothelioma is associated with exposure to which of the following?
- Coal
- Radon
- Tobacco
- Asbestos
- Asbestos
Perhaps the best-known occupational hazard is asbestos and its strong link to lung cancer and mesothelioma.
In men, increased androgens are associated with the development of:
- prostate cancer.
- colon cancer.
- penile cancer.
- testicular cancer.
- prostate cancer.
In men, increased androgens are associated with the development of prostate cancer.
Inflammatory cytokines such as those found in ultraviolet light exposure have which of the following effects on the risk of cancer?
- Inflammatory cytokines increase the risk of skin cancer.
- Inflammatory cytokines protect against skin cancer.
- Inflammatory cytokines only increase the risk of skin cancer in individuals with minimal melanocytes in the skin.
- There is no evidence that inflammatory cytokines have any effect on skin cancer development.
- Inflammatory cytokines increase the risk of skin cancer.
Inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) can contribute to carcinogenesis by increasing the exposure of cells to toxic oxygen radicals.
Radon exposure increases an individual's risk for which of the following cancers?
- Lung
- Esophageal
- Skin
- Pancreatic
- Lung
Radon is an odorless gas that is emitted from the ground and trapped in basements of houses. Inhaling radon increases a person’s risk for developing lung cancer.
memorize
Which of the following statements is true regarding exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic radiation and the risk of cancer?
- Electromagnetic radiation has been demonstrated to result in cancer of multiple organs.
- None of the above is true.
- Electromagnetic radiation has no relationship to the development of cancer.
- Electromagnetic radiation has been identified as a possible carcinogen.
The increasing amount of electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure through cellular phones, fluorescent lights, high-voltage power lines, and computers has raised concerns, so in 1998 the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences designated EMF as a possible carcinogen.