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Quiz 8A

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andriyg81's version from 2018-10-10 21:44

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Question Answer
Which of the following is an effective treatment for cancer-related or chemotherapy-related anemia?
- Chemotherapy
- Calcium and magnesium supplements
- Erythropoietin
- Exercise
- Erythropoietin
Exogenous erythropoietin can be administered to stimulate bone marrow production of red blood cells.
Chronic active hepatitis B infection is a risk factor for developing which of the following types of cancer?
- Liver
- Pancreas
- Lung
- Leukemia
- Liver
Chronic active hepatitis B infection can cause increased cell division and mutagenesis in liver cells.
Which of the following factors plays a role in the development of cancer from viral and bacterial infections?
- Growth factors are released during the resulting inflammation.
- All of the above factors play a role.
- Cells divide more frequently to replace damaged tissue.
- Inflammatory chemicals cause damage to DNA.
- All of the above factors play a role.
All three of these factors play a role in the development of cancer from viral and bacterial-induced inflammation.
Which of the following factors is necessary for metastasis to occur?
- Temporary cessation of cell division
- Decreased cellular motility
- Decreased cell adhesions
- Proximity to body cavities
- Decreased cell adhesions
Metastasis requires decreased cell adhesions, increased motility, and presence of lymphatic or blood vessels.
Which of the following viruses has been implicated in the development of cervical cancer?
- HIV
- Human papillomavirus
- Herpesvirus
- Epstein-Barr virus
- Human papillomavirus
The sexually transmitted human papillomavirus is the primary cause of cervical cancer.
Which of the following modes of treatment is not used to eradicate cancer?
- Surgery
- Immunotherapy
- Hormone therapy
- Blood transfusions
- Blood transfusions
Although blood transfusions can be used to treat severe cancer-related anemia, this therapy is not effective in treating cancers.
Which of the following mutational routes is necessary to cause cancer with a tumor suppressor gene mutation?
- Gene amplification
- Point deletion on one chromosome
- Chromosomal translocation
- Deletion of both copies of a tumor suppressor alleles
- Deletion of both copies of a tumor suppressor alleles
Both copies of a tumor suppressor alleles must be deleted for cancer to occur.
Kwashiorkor is a form of malnutrition arising from a diet poor in:
- calories.
- protein.
- fat.
- carbohydrate.
- protein.
Kwashiorkor is a specific form of malnutrition arising from a diet poor in protein.
Which of the following alterations in metabolism is often present in people with cancer?
- Increased anabolism
- Decreased fat breakdown
- Overproduction of protein
- Increased basic metabolic rate
- Increased basic metabolic rate
The release of cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor, interleukin 1 (IL-1), IL-6, and interferons results in increased protein, carbohydrate, and lipid metabolism.
Cachexia is a syndrome that includes all of the following symptoms except:
- dyspnea.
- weight loss.
- weakness and fatigue.
- anorexia.
- dyspnea.
Cachexia is one of the leading causes of death secondary to cancer and includes anorexia, profound weight loss, weakness and fatigue, and catabolic factors.
Helicobacter pylori infection is a bacterial cause of:
- lymphoma.
- gastric cancer.
- colon cancer.
- bladder cancer.
- gastric cancer.
Helicobacter pylori infection, which also causes peptic ulcer disease, is considered a primary risk factor for gastric cancer.
How does radiation therapy provide an effective means for treating some forms of cancer?
- Ionizing radiation damages the cancer cell's DNA.
- The resulting inflammatory response destroys the tumor.
- High-energy waves cause cell membrane injury.
- Heat generated by radiation is thermally toxic to cancer cells.
- Ionizing radiation damages the cancer cell's DNA.
A focused beam of ionizing radiation can cause enough DNA damage to seriously injure or kill tumor cells.
Seeding involves the spread of cancer cells to:
- dermis and subcutaneous layer of the skin.
- fascia surrounding muscles and bones.
- blood vessels.
- serous membranes of body cavities.
- serous membranes of body cavities.
Seeding involves the invasion of cancer cells to linings of the body cavities or in the cerebrospinal fluid.
Neuromuscular dysfunction and the release of inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor and interleukin 1 are thought to be responsible for which of the following manifestations of cancer?
- Thrombocytopenia
- Fatigue
- Metastasis
- Cachexia
- Fatigue
The hypothesized causes of cancer-related fatigue involve the effects of neuromuscular dysfunction and inflammatory mediators on skeletal muscle function.
After cancer cells metastasize into lymphatic vessels, which of the following events can occur?
- Cancer cells are killed by immune cells in the lymph nodes.
- Cancer cells lodge in the lymph node and proliferate.
- Cancer cells continue past the lymph nodes to distant organ sites.
- All of the above can occur.
- All of the above can occur.
After entering the lymphatic system, cancer cells may continue to travel to distant organs and tissues; however, they also may be killed by immune cells in the lymph nodes or survive and proliferate in the nodes.
Which of the following is not a typical characteristic of cancer cells?
- Autocrine stimulation
- Unlimited replication
- Loss of cellular self-destruct mechanisms
- Decreased responsiveness to growth signals
- Decreased responsiveness to growth signals
Cancer cells usually have an increased responsiveness to growth signals.
Referring to cancer, the term anaplasia means:
- ectopic production of hormones.
- rapid growth of cells.
- independence from normal cellular controls.
- loss of cellular differentiation.
- loss of cellular differentiation.
Cancer cells appear undifferentiated, or anaplastic, when compared with normal, mature cells.
The extension of cancer to distant tissues and organs is called:
- metastasis.
- tropism.
- apoptosis.
- malignancy.
- metastasis.
Metastasis is the extension of cancer to distant tissues and organs.
Which of the following statements about cancer pain is false?
- Nonpharmacologic therapies such as meditation and relaxation are effective for cancer pain management.
- Cancer pain management requires a multimodal and multidisciplinary approach.
- Most patients with cancer experience pain early in the disease process.
- When first diagnosed with cancer, many individuals say that severe pain is their biggest fear.
- Most patients with cancer experience pain early in the disease process.
Pain does not usually occur until late in the disease process after the tumor begins to cause tissue damage and compress nerves. The majority of patients with terminal cancer experience pain.
Oral ulcers caused by chemotherapy or radiation therapy is a condition known as:
- decubitus ulceration.
- candidiasis.
- impetigo.
- stomatitis.
- stomatitis.
Oral ulcers caused by chemotherapy or radiation therapy is a condition known as stomatitis, or oral mucositis.
The less differentiated a cancer cell is, the more:
- all of the above.
- embryonic it will appear.
- benign it will be.
- similar it will appear to its tissue of origin.
- embryonic it will appear.
An undifferentiated cancer cell will appear more embryonic as it loses its mature structural features and physiologic specialization.
Cancer-causing mutations of a proto-oncogene result in:
- production of monoclonal antibodies.
- apoptosis.
- increased cell division.
- decreased cell responsiveness to growth factors.
- increased cell division.
Proto-oncogenes normally promote cellular division, and overstimulation of these genes that cause them to function as oncogenes can lead to increased rates of mitosis.
As a result of circulatory patterns, cancer cells often first metastasize to the:
- brain.
- vertebral column.
- skeletal muscles.
- lung.
- lung.
After penetrating the lymphatic system, the cancer cells end up in the venous circulation and eventually in the right side of the heart. If the cancer cells survive their travels this far in the bloodstream, they will then be transported to the lung.
Sarcomas are cancers that arise from:
- germ cells.
- connective tissues.
- epithelial tissues.
- glandular tissues.
- connective tissues.
Sarcomas are cancers that arise from connective tissue cells.
Major causes of fatigue related to cancer and cancer therapy listed by the National Cancer Institute include all of the following except:
- immunosuppression.
- metabolic disturbances.
- disordered sleep.
- chronic stress.
- immunosuppression.
Side effects of cancer treatment include anemia malnutrition, anorexia/cachexia, metabolic disturbances, hormone changes, chronic stress, and disordered sleep.
Which of the following cell populations do chemotherapeutic agents primarily target?
- All rapidly dividing cells
- Cells that are incapable of mitosis
- Cancer cells only
- All cells
- All rapidly dividing cells
Chemotherapeutic agents target cells at certain stages in the cell cycle and therefore tend to cause injury or death to rapidly dividing cells. Populations affected include cancer cells and any healthy tissue undergoing mitosis, including cells of the bone marrow, hair follicle, and gastrointestinal tract.
Malignant tumors have a tendency to:
- do all of the above.
- grow rapidly.
- invade surrounding tissues.
- metastasize to distant tissue.
- do all of the above.
Cells in malignant tumors divide and proliferate rapidly. Malignant tumors also have a tendency to invade surrounding tissues and metastasize to distant tissues.
Pharmacologic therapies for pain management include all of the following except:
- opioids.
- beta receptor blockers.
- local anesthesia.
- anti-inflammatory agents.
- beta receptor blockers.
Pharmacologic treatment of pain most often includes opioids (such as morphine) in combination with adjuvant therapies such as antiinflammatories (e.g., ibuprofen), nerve "stabilizers" (such as tricyclic antidepressants or antiepileptic drugs), and local anesthesia (e.g., nerve blocks).
As a tumor grows, it exerts mechanical pressure on surrounding tissues, which results in:
- extravasation.
- metastasis.
- cellular swelling.
- ischemia.
- ischemia.
Pressure on blood vessels reduces blood flow, causing hypoxia and necrosis in the surrounding tissues. This allows the tumor to easily expand into these tissues.
Cancers in the abdominopelvic cavity, such as ovarian and colorectal cancers, tend to first metastasize to the:
- brain.
- axillary lymph nodes.
- liver.
- bladder.
- liver.
Because of blood flow through the hepatic portal circulation, cancer cells in abdominal or pelvic organs have a tendency to metastasize first to the liver.
The most commonly reported symptom in individuals with cancer is:
- fatigue.
- anorexia.
- depression.
- nausea.
- fatigue.
Fatigue, as a result of many physiological and psychological factors, is the most commonly reported symptom among cancer patients.
The wasting syndrome associated with cancer and cancer treatment is called:
- anabolism.
- Cushing syndrome.
- anemia.
- cachexia.
- cachexia.
The wasting syndrome associated with cancer and cancer treatment is known as cachexia.
Which of the following genetic events is capable of activating oncogenes?
- All of the above
- Amplification
- Deletion
- Loss of heterozygosity
- Amplification
Because the growth-promoting effect of oncogenes must involve overexpression of the gene, amplification is a genetic event that can activate an oncogene.
A tumor that has distant lymph node involvement but no evidence of distant metastasis to other tissues is classified as:
- stage II.
- stage III.
- stage I.
- stage IV.
- stage III.
Stage III tumors have evidence of regional lymph node spread but no distant metastasis.
Anticipatory nausea related to cancer treatment is caused by:
- constipation and diarrhea.
- central nervous system effects of chemotherapeutic drugs.
- fear of impending chemotherapy treatment.
- gastrointestinal tract toxicity.
- fear of impending chemotherapy treatment.
Anticipatory nausea occurs before chemotherapy and is caused by the stress or fear of impending treatment.
A proto-oncogene is best defined as:
- a normal gene that has the potential to mutate.
- a tumor-suppressor gene.
- an inactive gene.
- a frameshift mutation.
- a normal gene that has the potential to mutate.
A proto-oncogene normally codes for proteins such as growth factors and growth factor receptors. A normal proto-oncogene does not cause cancer.
Alterations in carbohydrate metabolism in people with cancer cause:
- hypoglycemia.
- a diabetes-like syndrome.
- weight gain.
- depressed carbohydrate absorption.
- a diabetes-like syndrome.
Alterations in carbohydrate metabolism in people with cancer often cause hyperglycemia and a diabetes-like syndrome.
Which of the following is a typical characteristic of benign tumors?
- Cells in the tumor are undifferentiated.
- Cells in the tumor occasionally metastasize to lymph nodes.
- Benign tumors have a tendency to invade surrounding tissue.
- Benign tumors are surrounded by a capsule.
- Benign tumors are surrounded by a capsule.
Most benign tumors are surrounded by a capsule that separates the tumor from the surrounding tissue.
Normally, the tumor suppressor gene p53 induces:
- telomere activity.
- the formation of oncogenes.
- secretion of antigrowth factors.
- apoptosis.
- apoptosis.
The p53 gene is a tumor suppressor gene that induces apoptosis of injured or mutated cells. Loss of this gene can contribute to the survival of a cancer cell.
Determining the size of the tumor, the degree of node involvement, and the extent of distant metastasis is called:
- staging.
- factoring.
- categorization.
- processing.
- staging.
Determining the size of the tumor, the degree of node involvement, and the extent of distant metastasis is called tumor staging.
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