Quiz 2 Review

jkluger's version from 2016-11-19 14:18

Quiz 2

Question Answer
What % of the body is water (adults)?60%
Fluid in the IV space is what % of the body weight?9%
ICF is what % of fluids?60%
Main electrolyte in the ICF?K+
Main electrolyte in the ECF?Na+
Movement of water through a semipermeable membrane?Osmosis
Particles/L solution?Osmolarity
Particles/ kg water?Osmolality
Normal serum osmolality?300 mOsm/kg
Loss in the ECF fluid volume?Dehydration
Loss from the IV space?Hypovolemia
Fluid solutions of small solutes are...?Crystalloids
Fluid solutions of large solutes are...?Colloids
LRS is a?Crystalloid
Albumin is a?Colloid
When should saline be used?Acute kidney failure, addison's alkalosis
When is it appropriate to use colloids?Hypoproteinemia, edema, not responding to other fluids
What kind of losses do crystalloids replace?Interstitial
What kind of losses do colloids replace?Intravascular
Do crystalloids stay in the IV space?Only about 1/4
Do colloids stay in the IV space?About 60-80%
What kind of fluids are replacement fluids?Isotonic
Dilution of RBCs, coag. factors, and proteins is called? What may it lead to?Hemodilution. May result in rebleeding.
Normal rate of replacement of ongoing losses?2-3 ml/kg/hr
What rate is used during general anesthesia?10 ml/kg/hr
What rate is used for shock patients?40-80 ml/kg/hr
What is the intraoperative fluid rate for a patient with hypertension?2-5 ml/kg/hr
What species has highest risk of pulmonary edema?Cats
When would you use hypotonic solutions?Hypertonic dehydration
When would you use hypertonic solutions?Hypovolemia, shock, or edema
Which colloid may cause anaphylaxis?Dextran
[(BW)*(rate)*(infusion calibration)] / 60 measures what?Drops/min
Normal temperature range for dogs and cats?100.5-102.5F
Normal temperature range for a horse?99.5-101.5 F
If a patient's body temperature is <99 F it is?Hypothermic
If a patient's body temperature is >106 F it is?Hyperthemic
Body temperature is controlled by?Hypothalamus
Which peripheral site has most accurate reflection of core temperature?Rectum
When should you start actively warming?<97 F
Hypothermia might lead to post-operative shivering which...?increases metabolic rate/oxygen demand
What can hypothermia cause?Longer recovery time (prolonged drug action and decreased MAC), increased wound infections and mortality, impaired coagulation
Prolonged preparation time and clipping are 2 causes of...?preoperative hypothermia
What is the main cause of intraoperative hypothermia?Radiation
When should you turn off heating devices?>100.4 F
When should you actively cool the patient?> 106 F
What main problems are associated with hyperthermia?increased cardiac/respiratory work, risk of hypercapnia/respiratory acidosis, altered coagulation
Which stage has voluntary movement?Analgesia
Which stage should stimulation be avoided?Excitation
Which stage has progressive depression of reflexes?General anesthesia
Which stage requires intervention?Asphyxia
In which species should palpebral reflex be absent in the surgical plane?Dogs, cats, cattle
Which species has increased BP in the surgical plane?Cattle
Which species has slow nystagmus and lacrimation in the surgical plane?Horses
Which species has reduced jaw tone in the surgical plane?Cats and Dogs
What can't an ECG provide information about?Mechanical function or cardiac output
A hypovolemic patients ECG will look...?Normal
Oscillometric tape and Doppler probes measure what?Non- invasive BP
CO = ?HR * SV
Gold standard for measuring BP?Invasive
Calculate Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP)?DAP + 1/3(SAP-DAP)
Ideal cuff width for oscillometry?40% of the circumference of the limb
Using a wide cuff will cause?Underestimation
Using a narrow cuff will cause?Overestimation
What can the doppler measure?SAP
In which species is the doppler falsely low?Cats
What is the lower limit of SAP?90mmhg
What is the lower limit of DAP?40 mmhg
What is the lower limit of MAP?60 mmhg in small animals, 70 in horses
What principle is pulse oximetry based upon?Lambert-Beer Law
Which absorbs more red light?deoxygenated hemoglobin
Which absorbs more infrared light?oxygenated hemoglobin
What is the normal SpO2 range?96-100%
What doesn't the pulse-ox tell you?CO2 elimination or hematocrit
An oxygen dissociation curve shows you...?O2 saturation % against the partial pressure of O2
What is Hypoxemia?When SpO2 is <90%
What are possible causes of hypoxemia?Hypoventilation, kinked tube, alveolar diffusion impairment, artefact
Limitations to the pulse oximeter...?motion, ambient light, skin pigmentation, abnormal hemoglobin
What does an apnea monitor measure?expirations (alarm when breathing stops)
Why is capnography a good tool for monitoring the respiratory system?Indicates ventilation and perfusion
Normal ETCO2?35-45 mmhg
Cardiac oscillations are noted on the capnograph should you panic?No
What should you check if rebreathing is noted?Absorbent, expiratory valve, FGF, breathing tube
What are the main reasons for hypercapnia?Hypoventilation, Re-Breathing, Increased metabolism
Causes of hypocapnia...?Hyperventiliation, hypovolemia, hypothermia, hypotension, decreased metabolism
Gold standard for evaluating gas exchange?Blood-Gas
What parameters are measured in a Blood-Gas?PaCO2, PaO2, pH
What parameters are calculated in a Blood-Gas?SaO2, HCO3, TCO2, Base excess
An A-a gradient indicates...?Efficiency of gas exchange between alveoli and arteries
Most common complications?Hypoventilation, Bradycardia, Hypotension, Hypothermia
Possible causes of hypoventilation?Deep anesthesia, positioning, severe hypothermia, musculoskeletal paralysis, drugs induced
When is apnea common?Immediately after induction of anesthesia
Common causes of apnea?Deep anesthesia, equipment failure, reflex due to visceral traction
What is the first thing to check if the patient is hyperventilating?Anesthetic depth (usually caused by pain and awareness)
Bradycardia?<60 in dogs, <100 in cats, and <20 in horses
Main causes of bradycardia?Drugs, high vagal tone, hyperkalemia, hypothermia
What if there is bradycardia accompanied by hypotension?Administer an anticholinergic
Main causes of tachycardia?Pain/awareness, hypovolemia, hypoxemia, anemia, myocardial disease
Main causes of hypotension?hypovolemia, vasodilation, reduced CO, bradycardia
If there is hypotension and no bradycardia what can you give?Dobutamine or Dopamine
Main causes of hypertension?pain/awareness, hypercapnia
If both HR and BP are increased what should you check?Anesthetic depth (too light)
If both HR and BP are decrease what should you check?Anesthetic depth (too deep)
If there is a complication what should you always check first?The Patient!