Quiz 2 psych

eshapeesha's version from 2016-02-23 02:28


Question Answer
Geons and "impossible figures"geons are the basic building bloks of all objects we recognize, impossible figures are made by non geon components
Prototype theory of meaninga mode of categorization where some members of a category are more central than other
Spreading activationshort term memory, we remember more in context
Stroop effect and automatizationtendency to read the words instead of saying color ink
Mental rotation and map image-scanning
Question Answer
studieswhen asked if 2 objects are the same, people make judgements by imagining one of the forms spinning until the positions match- subjects memorize map and had to scan from one point to another and judge dist
Change blindnessthe failure to detect changes in parts of a scene
Attentional blinkduring a brief time after percieving 1 stimulus, it is difficult to attend to something else.
Nature of expertise
Algorithms and heuristicsalgorithm- a mechanical, repetitive procedure for solving a problem or testing every hypothesis, heuristic- strategies for cimplifying a problem and generating a satisfactory guess
Representativeness heuristicthe assumption that an item that resembles members of some category is probably also in that category.
Base-rate informationhow common 2 categories are often overlooked when people apply representativeness heuristic
Availability heuristicthe tendency to assume that if we easily think of examples of a category, then that category must be common. (ex- after a plane crash, flying is dangerous)
Overconfidenceon hard problems, people are generally overconfident
Confirmation biastendency to accept a hypothesis and then look for evidence to support it instead of considering other possibilities
Framing bias and “spin”framing bias- when the wording of a problem leads us to a decision; spin- spinning facts to make people reframe their ides towards a certain viewpoint
Natural selectiondifferent reproductive success of individuals within a population bc of hereditary differences among them. organisms w favorable characteristics reproduce more.
Requirements for natural selection
variabilitydifferences among organisms/ traits.
selection pressuresenviro factors that reduce reproductive success
  Inheritance mechanism
Question Answer
Vestigial structures and importance to Darwinstructures left over from previous stages of evolution
Neotenyholding on to juvenile traits as an adult, less in chimpanzees than humans
Personal vs. inclusive fitnesspersonal fitness- firect reproductive prowess. inclusive fitness- assistance of kins reproduction, leads to cooperative behavior.
Kin selection
Question Answer
Vervet monkeys and callsvervet monkeys have proto language, can communicate if an eagle is overhead they go under tree, if snake is nearby they go up tree
Taxismovement toward or against a simple stimulus. phototaxis (light), geotaxis (location), chemotaxis (chem)
Fixed action patterns & releasing stimulian action that runs to completion and then may reset, triggered by releasers (yawning, honeybees)
Imprinting & critical (sensitive) periodstriggered in critical periods, if a mae robin doesnt hear te song or mature robin it wont know how to sing, not for humans
Corvid intelligence w/examples
Tryon behavior-genetics study
Question Answer
Evidence on human infant imprintingno imprinting stage for humans
Types of mating systemsmonogamy- pair bonding, polugamy- one animal has many mates, polyandry- one f w many m, polygyny- 1 m many f, promiscuity- eery fucks everyone. most polygyny
Rationale for sexual reproductionhedge against enviro change, no current reason for humans, protection against pathogens
Advantage of sexual reproduction
Question Answer
Sexual dimorphismsystematic difference in form between individuals of different sex in the same species. cause means of structural or behavioral competition.
Evolutionary explanations of altruismselfless concern for others, makes sense for bros to help eachother to pass genes along.
Evolutionary explanation of sex rolesfemales bigger than males, except species w large brains, females make larger parental investment p gamete.
Sexual selectiona type of natural selection in which members of ne sex compete for reproductive access to members of the other sex
Male displays resulting from sexual selectionrams butt heads, kangaroos box, birds sing sngs and flash their feathers
Incitement and "female choice" in matingfemales look at male bird feathers to choose their mate
Cryptic female choicefemale ovum rejects certain sperm. genetic key doesnt match on cell membranes, overt- female chooses male
Aspects of human mating system
  Incest w/costs
  Out-breeding drive and MHC findings
  Cryptic ovulation w/rationales
  Mate guarding
  Mating criteria
  Incitement & flirting
Question Answer
Kinsey surveyscale 0-6 (homo to hetero), not binary anymore, reconceptualized sexual orientation. 46% males reacted sexually to both sexes, 37% males had at least 1 homosexual experience, 7% of females bisexual.
Helen Fisher’s phases of love and related neurochemicals
Question Answer
Sexual orientation and possible determinants (also see Reproductive Behavior)females- higher exposure to prenatal andogens, finger length, males- x linked trait that promotes fertility in females, older bio bro raises homo probability by 33%
“Correlated variations” with sexual orientation (finger length etc.)2d-4d finger ratios (gay people w switched ratios)
“Gaydar” and sexual-orientation
Question Answer
Organizing effects of androgens and estrogens
Sensitive period in sexual differentiation
Role of Sexually Dimorphic Nucleus (SDN)
Question Answer
sexual dimorphismsystematic difference in form between individuals of different sex in the same species, cause of means of structural or behavioral competition.
Activating Effects of sex hormones on human sexual function, motivation, attraction, parenting
What partners seek in mates
Sex differences in jealousy
Gender identity
Common types of intersexes
How should intersexed people be reared?
Genetic and evolutionary hypotheses about
  sexual orientation