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Quantitative Research Design for Nursing page 2

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porkchop205's version from 2016-10-24 15:43

Section 1

Question Answer
randomnessall participants have an equal chance of being assigned to a a group
basic randomizationeach person is allocated to a group as they enroll into a two group design by 'flipping a coin"
complete randomizationanother name for basic randomization
flaw in basic or complete randomizationunequal groups likely
simple randomizationstarts with a known sample size and allocates proportions to be assigned to each group, then randomly assigning until all groups meet the allocated number
table of random numbersway to randomly select without computer technology
random assignmenta signature of experimental design
random samplingnot usually used in experimental/RCT research design
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Section 2

Question Answer
allocation concealmentprevents biases stemming from knowledge of allocations before the member is assigned
rolling enrollmentpeople enter study not simultaneously, but one by one and are placed into a pre-designed enrollment schematic
baseline datapreintervention data
timing of randomizationrandomization to an arm or group should be done after eligibility is determined and consent is obtained
stratified randomizationrandomization occurs seperately for distinct subgroups
permuted block randomizationpeople are allocated to groups in small blocks to ensure balanced distribution in each block
urn randomizationgroup balance is continuously monitored and aoolcation probability is adjusted when imbalance occurs.
randomized consentZelen design; randomization occurs before consent is obtained
partial randomizationonly people without a strong treatment preference are randomized
partially randomized patient preference (PRPP)anther term for partial randomization
cluster randomizationrandomly assigning clusters of people to different treatment
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Section 3

Question Answer
Goals of randomizationminimize confounding; minimize predictability; maximize power; maximize cooperation; maintain ethical conduct
complete or simple randomization best possible method to maximize predictability
restricted, fixed randomizationensures balance in a group
block randomization flawallocation can be predictable; does not allow for imbalance of confounding variables
randomized stratification disadvantageonly a few stratifying variables can be used unless the sample size is large
randomized stratification advantageachieves balance between fixed confounding variables such as age, gender that could impact the outcome
prognostic variables or covariatespotential confounders that could bias the results ie age, gender, etc
adaptive randomizationurn randomization; covariate adaptive randomization; outcome adaptive (rarely used in nursing research)
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Qualitative Research Design