Quantitative Rearch Design - Nursing

porkchop205's version from 2016-10-24 15:37

Section 1

Question Answer
causalitycause and effect
causesusually not deterministic, but probabilistic
effectthe difference between what DID happen and what WOULD have happened
Do scientists ever prove a hypothesis?No. We can only show most convincing evidence
three criteria for causalitytemporal, relationship, no confounders
temporalcause must preceed effect in time
relationshipmust show association between the cause and the presumed effect
confoundersthe relationship cannot be explained by a third variable
counterfactualwhat simultaneously would have happened to same research subjects if they were NOT exposed to the causal factor
coherencesimilar evidence from multiple sources
biological plausibilityevidence from lab or basic physiologic studies that causal pathway is credible
manipulationdoing something to study participants; and intervention

Section 2

Question Answer
ExperimentRadomized Clinical Trial; controlled trial
Quasi-experimentControlled trial without randomization
Nonexperimental studyObservational Study
Retrospective studycase-controlled study
Prospective studyCohort study
Group or ConditionGroup or arm
Experimental groupTreatment or intervention group

Section 3

Question Answer
Characteristics of RCTmanipulation; control; randomization
manipulationresearcher does something to at least some participants
controlthe researcher does something to control the variable (usually a control group get no intervention)
randomizationchooses who gets and does not get the intervention randomly
end pointthe outcome
protocola specific order and description of how to perform the intervention. Must be followed without deviation
patient-centered interventions (PCI)each person receives intervention tailored to specific characteristics such as demographic traits
control groupgroup used for the baseline to compare the effect of the intervention on groups receiving the intervention

Section 4

Question Answer
positive controlthe therapy has already been tested and 'proven' to be effective
standard method of care controlthe control group receives standard nursing care
placebothe control group may receive a pseudo intervention presumed to have no therapeutic value
placebo effectthe control group receives a perceived benefit from a fake intevention simply because they expect it to work.
different intensities controlthe control group gets a less intensive or a lesser dose of treatment used to analyze dose-response effects
wait-list control groupdelayed treatment is rendered to the control group who gets no treatment at first
attention control groupone group is given less attention than the other to rule out the possibility the special attention caused the effect rather than the intervention itself