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Qualitative Analysis

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lunachem's version from 2017-12-09 15:21

Appearances of solids

Colour of solidDeduction
Yellow/reddish yellowLead(II) oxide, silver iodide, hydrated iron(III) chloride
GreenHydrated iron(II) salts (pale green), hydrated copper(II) chloride, copper(II) carbonate
BlueHydrated copper(II) salts
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Appearances of solids (Chemical symbols)

Colour of solidDeduction
Yellow/reddish yellowPbO, AgI, hydrated FeCl3
GreenHydrated Fe(II) salts (pale green), hydrated CuCl2, CuCO3
BlueHydrated Cu(II) salts
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Cations in sample based on observations made during heating

ObservationDeduction
White sublimate (deposits on upper, cooler part of tube)Ammonium halides may be present
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Colour of solid formedSolid formed isCation in sample
Yellow when hot; white when coldZinc(II) oxideZinc
Orange when hot; yellow when coldLead(II) oxideLead
Reddish brown when hot; brown when coldIron(III) oxideIron
Black solid from blue or green substanceCopper(II) oxideCopper
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Flame test

Metal ionFlame colour
SodiumGolden yellow
PotassiumLilac
CalciumBrick red
Copper(II)Bluish green
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Solubility of ionic compounds in water

Compound ofSolubility in water
Group 1 metal ionsAll soluble
Ammonium ionsAll soluble
Nitrate ionsAll soluble
Halide ionsAll soluble except silver and lead halide
Sulphate ionsAll soluble except calcium, lead and barium sulphate
Carbonate ionsAll insoluble except sodium, potassium and ammonium carbonate
Oxide and hydroxide ionsAll insoluble except sodium and potassium oxide/hydroxide
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