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Pulmonary

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chandlerrice's version from 2016-12-20 18:49

Abnormal Breath Sounds

Question Answer
RhonchiContinuous low-pitched sounds resembling snoring or gurgling during inspiration and expiration
StridorContinuous high-pitched wheeze heard with inspiration or expiration
CrackleDiscontinuous high-pitched popping sound heard during inspiration
WheezeContinuous musical or whistling sound composed of a variety of pitches
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Breathing Patterns

Question Answer
ApneaAbsence of spontaneous breathing
Biot'sIrregular breathing; breaths vary in depth and rate with periods of apnea, often associated with increased intracranial pressure or damage to the medulla
BradypneaSlower than normal respiratory rate; < 12 breaths/minute in adults; may be associated with neurologic or eletrolyte disturbance, infection or high level of cardiorespiratory fitness
TachypneaFaster than normal respiratory rate; >20 breaths/min in adults
Cheyne - Stokes Decreasing rate and depth of breathing with periods of apnea; can occur due to central nervous system damage
HyperpneaIncreased rate and depth of breathing
HypopneaDecreased rate and depth of breathing
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Postural Drainage

Question Answer
Upper Lobe (Apical Segment)table flat, patient seated, leaning back at 30deg; percuss over area between clavicle and scapula
Upper Lobe (Posterior Segment)table flat; patient seated, leaning forward over pillow at 30deg; percuss over upper back
Upper Lobe (Anterior Segment)table flat; patient supine with pillow under knees; percuss between clavicle and nipple
Right Middle Lobefoot of table elevated 16in; knees flexed, patient head down on left side (1/4 turn); pillow holding between shoulders and knees; percuss over right nipple area
Left Upper Lobe (Lingular Segments)foot of table elevated 16in; patient head down on right side (1/4 turn); percuss over left nipple
Lower Lobe (Anterior Basal Segments)foot of table elevated 20in; patient lays on opposite side, head down; percuss over lower ribs
Lower Lobes (Lateral Basal Segments)foot of table elevated 20 in; patient lies on abdomen, 1/4 turn upward; upper leg flexed; percuss over upper portion of lower ribs
Lower Lobes (Posterior Basal Segments)table flat; prone with 2 pillows under hips; percuss over tip of scapula
Lower Lobes (Superior Segments)table flat; prone with 2 pillows under hips; percuss over tip of scapula
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EKG Abnormalities

Question Answer
ST ElevationNew infarct or injury or pericarditis
ST DepressionMay indicate ischemia if down sloping 2-3mm
Inverted T WaveIschemia
Wide QRSBundle branch heart block affecting ventricles
Q WaveSeen in infarction
P Wave Different or AbsentAtrial or ventricular arrhythmias
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Lung Volumes and Capacities

Question Answer
Tidal Volume (TV)Volume of gas inhaled (or exhaled) during normal resting breath
Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV)Volume of gas that can be inhaled beyond a normal resting tidal inhalation
Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV)Volume of gas that can be exhaled beyond a normal resting tidal exhalation
Residual Volume (RV)Volume of gas that remains in the lungs after ERV has been exhaled
Inspiratory Capacity (IC)The amount of air that can be inhaled after the end of normal expiration
Functional Residual Capacity (FRC)The amount of additional air that can be exhaled after a normal exhalation
Vital Capacity (VC)Measures the maximum amount of air that can be inhaled or exhaled during a respiratory cycle
Total Lung Capacity (TLC)Measurement off the total amount of air that the lung can hold
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Section 6

Section 7

Section 8

Section 9

Section 10

Section 11

Section 12

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