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Pulmonary Disease

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kukuhkjhh's version from 2017-05-02 00:40

Section 1

Question Answer
What is the prime function of the lungs ?RESPIRATION - to oxygenate tissues and remove carbon dioxide
What are obstruct lung diseases characterized by ? characterized by decreased expiratory flow rates
What are 3 examples of obstructive lung diseases 1. asthma 2. COPD 3. Cystic fibrosis
What are restrictive lung diseases characterized by ?1. decrease in lung compliance (the chest wall or both) 2. often due to PULMONARY FIBROSIS OR NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES affecting respiratory muscles
What is asthma ?chronic inflammatory disorder of the airway associated with airway hyper responsiveness to stimuli resulting in bronchial edema and narrowing or bronchial airways
What is the etiology of asthma ?exposure to a trigger releases histamine and cytokines that result in: bronchospasm, mucous hypersecretion, and diminished ciliary motion
What are extrinsic (allergic)?activation of mast cells and histamine degranulation following exposure to allergens (dust, pet dander, mold, pollen
What are intrinsic (idiopathic) allergies ?triggered • Triggered by respiratory irritants such as smoke, resp infections, cold air, anxiety and stress, and GERD
What are pharmacological ways to manage asthma ?1. rescue inhalers (beta2 agonist) 2. Maintenance medications (anti-inflammatory medications)
What are the 3 risks for dental management of patients with asthma ?1. infection 2. ability to withstand dental care 3. drug interactions
What should you prescribe to patients on beta 2 agonists ?fluoride supplements ( instruct patient to rinse mouth after using an inhaler)
What might you have to prescribe to a patient on chronic inhaled steroid possible need for anti fungal
What time of day should you schedule pts. with asthma ?late morning or afternoon
During dental tx of pts. with asthma what precautions should you have with LA vasoconstrictors judiciously
– Avoid using local anesthetics containing sodium metabisulfite
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Section 2

Question Answer
What is COPD Preventable respiratory disorder that involves airway obstruction that is not fully reversible → chronic bronchitis, peripheral airway disease, emphysema
What is the etiology of COPD ?abnormal inflammatory response to noxious agents such as smoke and pollutants
What does the chronic inflammation associated with COPD cause ?causes narrowing of the small airways that decreases airway flow and destroys lung parenchyma and alveolar walls
What does COPD do to the elastic recoils ?DECREASES elastic recoil, diminishing ability of airways to remain open during expiration
What genetic risk factors modify the risk of having COPD ?hereditary deficiency of alpha-1-antitrypsin
What is FEV 1? the maximal amount of air you can forcefully exhale in one second. It is then converted to a percentage of normal
What does FEV 1 a marker for ?marker for the degree of obstruction
What is blue bloater?chronic bronchitis
what is a pink puffer ?emphysema
What should you avoid using when treating pts. with COPD ?avoid HIGH FLOW (>4L/min) oxygen
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Section 3

Question Answer
What is cystic fibrosis ?autosomal recessive disorder; most carriers are asymptomatic
What is cystic fibrosis a disease of ?Disease of exocrine gland function that primarily involves the upper and lower airways, pancreas, GI and reproductive systems 

How is cystic fibrosis diagnosed ?diagnosed by measuring electrolyte levels (Chloride) in sweat 

How does cystic fibrosis affect the lungs ?Production of abnormally thick mucous of lungs leading to chronic respiratory infections and pancreatic enzyme insufficiency leading to malnutrition
What is obstructive sleep apnea ? condition in which the flow of air pauses or decreases during breathing while asleep because the airway has become narrowed, blocked, or floppy
What is apnea episode ? a pause in breathing
What is a hypopnea episode ?decrease in airflow during breathing
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