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Public Health WK 4 Infectious disease and Public Health Infrastructure

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alchemist04's version from 2016-05-11 05:17

Section

Question Answer
What is Public Health Surveillance?Effective preparedness and response rely on MONITORING DISEASE PATTERNS, investigating individual case reports, and using epidemiological and laboratory analyses to target public health intervention and strategies
What is Public Health used for?(1) Illness outbreaks (2) National surveillance (3) Statewide surveillance (4) Local surveillance
What is Epidemiology? (1)Scientific analysis of disease etiology, patterns of infection, and disease prediction among the general population.
What is Epidemiology? (2)Epidermiologic investigations seek to determine what is causing the disease, how the disease is spreading, and who is at risk of the disease
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What is Public Health Infrastructure?Basic foundation for public health activities
What does infrastructure consist of? (1)Consists of recognizable resources
What does infrastructure consist of? (2)Consists of linkages and pathways connecting the resources
What does infrastructure consist of? (3)used to carry out the core functions of public health
What are the core functions of public health?Assessment, Policy development and assurance
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What are the components of PH infrastructure? (1)Human resources
What are the components of PH infrastructure? (2)Information resources
What are the components of PH infrastructure? (3)Organization resources
What are the components of PH infrastructure? (4)Financial resources
Which among components of PH infrastructures is the biggest of all and which is the 2nd biggest?Human resources, follow by financial resources
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What is an Infectious Disease?(1) A disease that is caused by the invasion of a host by agents whose activities harm the host’s tissues (2) Transmitted to other individuals (3) Agents cause infection and exist in various forms.
Define Pathogensmicroorganisms that cause disease
Define BacteriaUnicellular prokaryotic organisms. Most common are Salmonella typhi (typhoid fever) and Yersinia pestis (plague)
Define VirusesViral genome of nucleic acid surrounded by an outer lipid envelope. Most common are paramyxovirus (influenza, measles, and mumps) and rotaviruses (gastroenteritis) and retroviruses (AIDS or several cancers)
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What does "New Trend" in Infectious disease mean?Old disease that are remerging, the disease has been around before w/o much attention but bc of lack of surveillance , they are now remerging.
What is an example of remerging infectious disease?Multi-resistant pathogens.
What are examples of "New Trend" of infections related to antibiotic resistance infections? (1)Tuberculosis
What are examples of "New Trend" of infections related to antibiotic resistance infections? (2)STD's like gonorrhea
What are examples of "New Trend" of infections related to antibiotic resistance infections? (3) Pneumococcal infections
What are examples of "New Trend" of infections related to antibiotic resistance infections? (4)Hospital-acquired Staphylococccal and enterococcal infections (Nosocomial infections)
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What are the Public Safety Programs (1)Water Safety Programs
What are the Public Safety Programs (2)Food Safety Programs
What are the Public Safety Programs (3)Animal Control Programs
What are the Public Safety Programs (4)Vaccination Programs
What are the Public Safety Programs (5)Sewage treatment and disposal
What are the Public Safety Programs (6)Public health organization
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True or False? Meat-packing facilities are NOT inspected regularly to detect and eliminate diseased animals?False
True or False? Dairy and milk products are DATED and INSPECTED prior to sales?True
True or False? Domestic herd animals can be carriers of tuberculosis (Bacterium: mycobacterium bovis and brucellosis which causes spontaneous abortion in domestic herd animalsTrue
True or False? Most states require that parents and guardians show proof of vaccination before children can be enrolled in day-care facilities or public schoolsTrue
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True or False? Antibacterial drugs have a lot of side effects?False, antibacterial drugs have minimal side effects
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Describe emerging infectious diseases (1)SARS
Describe emerging infectious diseases (2)WNV
Describe emerging infectious diseases (3)H5N1
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What is SARS mode of transmission?Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrom. Direct, close person-to person contact
What is SARS incubation period?2-7 days
What are some symptoms of SARS?High fever, chills, headache, general discomfort, body aches, diarrhea, non productive cough, hypoxia, pneumonia
What are some treatments of SARS?Mechanical ventilation
What is the Tx for SARS?same as Tx for Community Acquired Atypical Pneumonia
SAR could cause?Pneumonia or respiratory distress syndrome
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What is Clinical Prevention?Programs or interventions that target INDIVIDUALS. A program can target individuals, as well as target communities and the individuals in those communities. E.g. HIV test, TB test, Cholesterol screening and diabetes screening
What is Community Prevention?These programs or interventions are targeted toward the entire community. The targeted unit is the entire community and not the individual. E.g. Water services, sanitation services
What is Population-based Prevention?Usually but not limited to public-sector, services that target the entire population beyond the community-level. E.g. Social Security, Medicaid, Public health, Obamacare, Medicare
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Which type of Prevention do these programs represent? WICClinical, Community and Population based preventions
Which type of Prevention do these programs represent? Food StampsClinical, Community and Population based preventions
Which type of Prevention do these programs represent? TANF (temporary Aid for Needy Families)Clinical, Community and Population based preventions
Which type of Prevention do these programs represent? Hospital Immunization for newbornsClinical base, involves individual babies
Which type of Prevention do these programs represent? Public Housing Authority (PHA)Clinical, Community and Population based preventions
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What do PH programs seek to provide? (1)Prevent epidemics
What do PH programs seek to provide? (2)Protect the environment, work place, housing, food and water
What do PH programs seek to provide? (3)Prevent injuries, promote good health
What do PH programs seek to provide? (4)respond to disaster
What do PH programs seek to provide? (5)ensure the quality, accessibility, and accountability of health services
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True or False? Uniqueness and understanding is not important in growing diversityFalse, it is important
True or false? Different cultural group have propensity for different diseaseTrue
True or false? Chronic disease like diabetes, hypertension, and some cancers are often associated with diverse groupsTrue
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Define Cultural Competency (1)The demonstrated AWARENESS and INTEGRATION of issues like (1) health-related and cultural values (2) Disease incidence and prevalence (3) Treatment efficacy
Define Cultural Competency (2)A set of congruent behaviors, attitudes, and policies that come together in a system, agency, or among professionals and enable effective work in cross-cultural situations.
What is the impact of Cultural Competency on Public Health?It allows effective work in a cross cultural situation
What is the impact of Cultural Competency on delivery of pharmacy care?Helps pharmacy to reach both different ethnic groups
What are the communities related to cultural competency?ethnic based community, Gebder based community, SES based community, Sexual orientation based community, Nationality based community, Religion based community
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Define disabilityDisability is a state of decreased functioning associated with disease, disorder, injury, or other health conditions, which in the context of one’s environment is experiences as an impairment, activity limitation, or participation restriction.
Define health disparitydifferences in the health status of different groups of people. Some groups of people have higher rates of certain diseases, and more deaths and suffering from them, compared to others. These groups may be based on. Race. Ethnicity.
What is ADA 1990?Prohibits employers from discriminating “against a qualified individual with a disability because of the disability of such individual in regard to the job application hiring, advancement, discharge of employee, compensation, training and other terms of employment
What is ADAA of 2008?An expansion of the definition of disability to include both perceived and unperceived disability.
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What is H5N1?is an influenza A virus subtype that occurs mainly in birds and contagious to humans
How is Avian Flu (H5N1) transmitted?Does not usually affect humans
What are the precautions of H5N1?wash hands, careful with poultry products
How is H5N1 treated?No commercially available vaccine to protect human yet
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What is H1N1?Swine Flu
How is Swine Flu (H1N1) transmitted? (1)Direct contact, human to human contact
True or false? 70% of people hospitalized with Swine Flu (H1N1) were "high risk" of serious seasonal flu-related complicationsTrue
True or False? In Swine Flu (H1N1), Children are getting more infected than the adultsTrue
Greater disease burden of Swine Flu (H1N1) are found with which age group?people younger than 25 years and older people
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What does transmission cycle of WNV involves?primarily birds and mosquitoes (primary infectious mode for humans)
What are some symptoms of WNV?(1) febrile headache (2) Asceptic meningitis (3) encephalitis (4) meningoencephalitis
What is the incubation period of WNV ?2-14 days
What is the medical Tx for WNV?No specific Tx available
True of False? Majority of people infected with WNV develop no clinical illnessTrue
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What are the 3 population specific issues of cultural competency? (1)Health related and cultural values
What are the 3 population specific issues of cultural competency? (2)Disease incidence and prevalence
What are the 3 population specific issues of cultural competency? (3)Treatment efficacy
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Cultural sensitivityinvolves interventions. Degree to which cultural norms, beliefs, behavior and patterns etc are incorporated into interventions.
Cultural CompetenceIndividual level. Capacity of individuals to exercise interpersonal cultural sensitivity.
MuticulturalCultural pluralism. Incorporatng and appreciating perspectives of multiple racial and ethnic groups.
Culturally-basedIntended to engage and motivate behavior change e.g culturally based commercials. Programs and messages that use culturally-derived values and beliefs.
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Lesbianfemales attracted to female
Gaymale attracted to male
Bisexualattracted to individuals of either sex (both male and female)
TransgenderUmbrella term for people whose gender identity, expression or behavior is different from those typically associated with the sex assigned at birth
Queerattraction to individuals of all gender identifications
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True or False? Sex is expressed most on accurately continuumTrue
Sexual Identity/sexual orientationclassification of people based on sensual desires or practices. An emotional, romantic, sexual or affectionate attraction to individuals of a particular sex.
Current Definition of genderA social construction that refers to how differences between girls and boys and women and men are created and explained by society. It refutes the notions that most differences between women and men are due to biology and are normal and immutable
Gender identityroles and responsibilities traditionally attributed to men and women based on assumed biological sex e.g masculine, feminine. These roles are learned, changed over time and vary widely within and between cultures as well as from person to person
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Homosexualattraction to the same sex
Heterosexualattraction to opposite sex
Bisexualattraction to both male and female sex
Pansexualattraction to all gender identifications
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What is the preferred term for Homosexual?Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual
What is the preferred term for Lover, Roommate?Partner
What is the preferred term for Sexual Preference?Sexual Orientation
What is the preferred term for "Not a Real man/woman" or .............Transgender
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Medical model of disability (1)Predominant paradigm of disability in US
Medical model of disability (2)Disability is a personalized medical problem needing individual medical attention
Medical model of disability (3)Attributes of incapacitation or dependence
Medical model of disability (4)Type-casted as pitiable or inspiration
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Social model of disability (1)Depends on social context in which one lives/functions
Social model of disability (2)Being "disabled" depends on deviation on what society views as "normal"
Social model of disability (3)Inhibitions to full participation in mainstream life
Social model of disability (4)"Physiology" is not ignored and is taken into account
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