Public Health from c1350 - present
Who suggested constructing an artificial river to bring water to London from the River Lee? Edmund Colthurst
In what year did Edmund Colthurst make his suggestion? 1602
Who revived this idea after financial difficulties prevented its finish? Hugh Myddleton in 1609
Which King's support did Myddleton have? King James I
Where did most people get their water by 1750? Supplies by private companies - either piped into the house or available at standpipes on street corners
Who invented the water closet? (WC) Sir John Harrington
When was the water closet invented? 1596
How many years did it take before the WC was developed properly? 200
GOVERNMENT ACTION 1350-1850
Why did infectious diseases spread so quickly in London? High population density
What action was taken to try and prevent the 1665 plague spreading? Closed theatres to prevent crowds gathering / Dogs and cats killed / Barrels of tar burned in the streets to 'clear the air' / Carts collected dead bodies / If plague was discovered the house would be boarded up for 28 days with a red cross on the door
In 1750 what law was passed concerning gin, and why? Gin was made more expensive as the strong alcohol was decreasing health standards and most people were too drunk to work (!)
What did the government force people to do in 1871? Have the smallpox vaccination
What was this beginning to mark the end of? Laissez-faire attitude of the government
CHOLERA AND CHADWICK 1750-1900
What was Edwin Chadwick's job? He was secretary to the commision in charge of the workhouses.
In which year did Chadwick publish the results of his survey? 1842
What was Chadwick's survey called? 'The Sanitary Conditions of the Labouring Population'
What did Chadwick suggest that would be cheaper? It would be cheaper if local taxes were used to improve housing and hygiene rather than paying for workhouses
What were Chadwick's other suggestions? Providing access to clean water, and the removal of sewage and rubbish
Why did people reject Chadwick's ideas? Water companies thought changes would reduce their profits / Middle class people did not see why their money should go to the poor
When were the four cholera outbreaks? 1831, 1837, 1848, 1854
What did the Public Health Act of 1848 entail? Allowed towns to: set up their own local Board of Health / appoint a local medical officer / organise the removal of rubbish / build a sewer system
Why was the Public Health Act mostly ineffective? It did not force town councils to take action and the terms were only temporary.
GOVERNMENT ACTION 1850-1900
Who investigated the theory that cholera was spread by infected water? Dr John Snow
What did Snow do that dramatically caused the death rate from cholera to fall? Removed a handle of a water pump
In what year was the Great Stink of London? 1858
What caused the Great Stink? The intense heat caused the Thames' level to be low and the smell of exposed sewage filled the city.
What did this persuade the government to do? Agree to expensive ideas for a new sewer system.
Who established the new sewer system? Joseph Bazalgette
How long did the sewer system take to complete and when was it completed? 7 years, finished in 1865
When did working-class men get the vote? 1867
Why did working-class men getting the vote put pressure on the government? They represented a large amount of the population and so the government needed to meet their needs to get votes.
What were local councils responsible for by 1875? Ensuring clean water was provided / streets were paved / rubbish was removed / sewers were built / the quality of housing was improved
FOUNDATION OF THE WELFARE STATE 1900-1948
Which individuals carried out surveys on the state of quality of life for the poor and when did they do them? At the beginning of the 20th century - Charles Booth & Seebohm Rowntree
What shocked politicians into action at the start of the Boer War? A 1/3 of volunteers were too medically unfit to fight.
When was the Liberal government elected? 1905
Why was there resistance to the Liberal reforms? The cost of putting taxes up to pay for them
What had the average life expectancy risen to by 1931? 58 for males, 62 for females
PREVENTION AND EDUCATION 1948 - PRESENT
Name 5 ways in which the government takes a more preventative approach to public health now. Campaigns against health issues like smoking / promotion of a healthy diet / better disposal of rubbish / laws to reduce air pollution (1956 Clean Air Act) / strict laws on food safety
In what decade did it become clear about the links between smoking and cancer? 1960s
Since what year have cigarette packets carried a health warning? 1971
When was smoking banned in public places in England? 2007
What government action has been taken in recent years? Against obesity in school children / binge drinking of alcohol / STIs / promoting cancer checks etc
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