Fulfilling society's interest in assuring conditions in which people can be healthy (IOM, 1998). Interdisciplinary approach to address health concerns and problems.
Define public health (Last, 1995)
PH is one of the efforts organized by society to protect, promote, and restore the people's health. It is the combination of sciences, skills, and beliefs that is directed to the maintenance and improvement of the haealth of all the involved emphasize prevention of disease and the health needs of the population as a whole (Last,1995)
What are the components of public health? (i.e. what PH is involved in)
Health promotions, Health education, Maternal & Child health. Nutrition, Preventive care, medicine, pharmacy, Nursing, Environmental Health, Epidemiology & Bistatistic
Define and describe key morbidity rates commonly used in public health practices
1. Incidence Rate (IR) which is # of NEW individuals that develop a disease in a given time period divided by the # of people in the population at risk for the disease, all multiply by 100,000. 2. Prevalence Rate (PR) which is the # of ALL cases ( BOTH NEW and OLD) present at a particular period of time, it is the total number of cases that do exist at a particular period of time. # of people diseased in a population divided by # of people exposed to disease in a population multiply by (D) average duration of disease and multiply by 100,000 (IR x D x 100,000)
An aspect of personal behavior, lifestyle, environmental exposure, inborn or inherited characteristic, that is based on epidemiologic evidence is known to be associated with health-related conditions
Define Risk Marker/indicator
an attribute that is associated with an increased probability of occurence of a disease or other specific outcome and that can be used as an indicator of this increased risk. Not necessarily a causal factor.
What are some of the examples of public health goals (Last, 1995)?
1. To reduce the amount of disease. 2. To reduce premature death. 3. to reduce disease-produced discomfort and disability
What are the underlying characteristics of public health?
1. Vigilantly promoting and protecting all individual's interests. 2. Core functions exist for delivery of public health. 3. promotion of healthy conditions of all peoples regardless of age, sex, socioeconomic status (SES), education 4. Both a health science and an art
Define social justice
Fair distribution of benefits and burdens of social interventions, policies, or program relative to public health
What are the examples of social justice?
1. Social services. 2. Health services. 3. Health policies
What are some examples of COMMON characteristics of PH?
(1) Combination of sciences and skills (2) believes in health maintanance and improvement (3) involves all people (4) maintenance and improvement through collective or social actions (5) Serving the population as a whole
Those factors and interventions that may prevent disease. Occurs before a person is even at risk for a disease. Considers societal, cultural, and systematic factors that can prevent onset of disease states. Example: Eat less candies, brush your teeth and floss
Define Primary Prevention
prevention of disease or infirmity when people are at -risk of the disease. Interventions are specifically targeted toward a disease state. Individuals may be ar-risk for diease state. Lower risk factors and change lifestyle behaviors. Example: Brushing teeth at risk of cavity, eat no more sweets
Define Secondary Prevention
Individual already has a disease state. Secondary prevention seeks to alleviate or lessen the symptoms of disease. It seeks to stop further progression of the disease state. Example fill the cavity with a cobalt dilling
Define a Tertiary Prevention
Individual or community has been "cured" of disease state. It a prevention of recurrence. It is an interventions that are targeted towards maintenance of disease recurrence. Example: Continue brushing teeth with fluoride. Continue regular check-ups for prevention
Not merely referring to the absence of physical presence or diagnosis of a disease state, it may exist w/o a physical manifestation of disease. Illness may involve emotional or mental representations of feeling ill.
Not merely absence of disease but a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being
Manifestation of some type of physiological injury or state.