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o1234567889q's version from 2017-09-27 17:57

Antibiotics

Question Answer
Mechanisms through which antibiotics workInhibiting protein synthesis; Inhibition of nucleic acid synthesis; Inhibition of cell wall synthesis; Disruption of cell membrane function; Block pathways and inhibit metabolism
What are statins?Antihyperlipidemics
What are statins also known as?HMG-coA reductase inhibitors
The two types of synthetic drugsCannabinoids and Stimulants
Synthetic Cannabinoidschemicals that mimic the effect of THC, the primary psychoactive active ingredient in marijuana.
Synthetic stimulantssuch as Bath Salts. Most synthetic stimulants contain chemical compounds that mimic the effects of cocaine, LSD and methamphetamine. (Similar drugs include MDMA sometimes referred to as “ecstasy”, “molly”)
amphotericin Bpolyene antifungal drug
abacavircommon antiviral drug belonging to the nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) class
tetracyclinebroad-spectrum antibiotic with a major side effect of being incorporated into the teeth and bone
penicillincommon b-lactam antibiotic
how does the the quinolone class of antibiotics workThese drugs work by inhibiting DNA synthesis—specifically acting on the DNA gyrase enzyme, which is an enzyme that relieves strain while double-stranded DNA is being unwound .
Quinolones are used primarily to treaturinary tract infections
Quinolone suffix-oxacin
What spectrum of antibiotics are quinolonesbroad- spectrum
Types of penicillinsNatural, Penicillinase/b-lactamase resistant, Aminopenicillin, Extended spectrum
When and by who were antibiotics first discovered?in 1929 by Alexander Flemming
The first antibiotic discoveredpenicillin
How are antibiotics classified?by chemical structure, spectrum of activity, or mechanism of action
Which antibiotics inhibit cell wall synthesis?B-lactams and other antibiotics without a b-lactam structure
Which classes of antibiotics are included in b-lactams?penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, monobactams
What are RTIs used mainly for?HIV/AIDS and in some cases hepatitis B
memorize

Antifungals

Question Answer
Where do fungal infections typically occur?in tissues with low circulation or tissues in the upper layers of the skin, hair, or nails.
What are superficial fungal infections?infections in the upper layers of the skin, nails, and hair
examples of systematic fungal infectionsdisseminated blastomycosis and coccidiomycosis.
Why is fungal infections harder to treat than bacterial infections?antibiotics target cell division which makes the fast dividing process an advantage but fungi divide much more slowly
the main classes of antifungalspolyene antifungals, azole antifungals, and echinocandins
what is the most common toxicity associated with amphotericin Bnephrotoxicity
how must amphotericin B be given?intravenously or topically because it cannot be absorbed in the GI tract
Which class of drugs in general are poorly solubleantifungals
What does the term polyene refer tothe chemical structure that makes up the antifungals
How does amphotericin B workby binding to sterols in the fungal membrane which disrupts the membrane function causing electrolytes to leak from the cell
What sterol is targeted by amphotericin Bergosterol
How is Amphotericin B given and whycannot be absorbed by GI tract so must be given intravenously or topically
How does Azole antifungals workby inhibiting an enzyme the fungus use to make ergosterol
How do Echinocandins workby disrupting cell walls by inhibiting the synthesis of glucan
What are Echinocandins used to treatcandida and the mold aspergillus
How are Echinocandins given?by injection because they are poorly absorbed.
Echinocandin suffix-fungin
A topically administered antifungal drug for superficial infectionsTerbinafine
What are sterols?a class of organic chemicals that occur naturally in plants, animals, and fungi.
What are sterols also known as?sterol alcohols
Examples of sterols in humans and plantsin humans: cholesterol, in plants: Vitamins A, D, E, and K
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Antivirals

Question Answer
What does the Human Immunodeficiency Virus cause?AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome)
Examples of ailments that antivirals treatHIV, herpes virus, hepatitis B and C, and influenza A and B
How do (PIs) protease inhibitors work?by interfering with the processing of viral proteins and, therefore, prevent the formation of new viral particles
PI antiviral suffix-vir
RTI (reverse transcriptase inhibitors) antivirals' suffix-ine
What are the drugs in a cocktail called and whyreverse transcriptase inhibitors because they target an enzyme called reverse transcriptase
What is a cocktail?multiple drugs given to HIV patients to target multiple viral mechanisms
How do antiviral drugs work?by targeting the development cycle of a virus
Typical drug used to treat Influenza AOseltamivir
Antivirals for herpes acyclovir, valacyclovir
Antivirals for respiratory syncytial virusribavirin,
Antivirals for hepatitisadefovir,
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Anesthetics

Question Answer
What does the CNS consist ofthe brain and the spinal cord.
What are drugs that depress nerve function called?Neuroleptics
Which drugs reduce perception of pain?Narcotics and opiates
Difference between anesthetics and analgesicsAnesthetics temporarily cause a reversible loss of sensation/consciousness which analgesics relieve pain without eliminating sensation.
What is the name for laughing gas?nitrous oxide
Is inhaled anesthetics general or local?General
Ways general anesthetics can be givenintramuscular, intravenous, inhalation
Examples of general anesthetics given by injectionpropofol, etomidate, barbiturates (such as methohexital), benzodiazepines (such as midazolam)
Examples of inhalation anestheticsdesflurane, isoflurane, sevoflurane
What are inhaled anesthetics combined withnitrous oxide
Local anestheticscause a reversible loss of sensation in a region of the body while maintaining conscuousness
How do local anesthetics work?by blocking the sodium channel in nerve which prevents neurological impulses from traveling down the nerve
Examples of local anestheticscocaine, procaine, benzocaine, lidocaine, bupivacaine
What are the steps of loss of sensation when using local anesthetics?First a loss of sympathetic function, followed by loss of pinprick sensation and temperature perception, lastly motor function is inhibited
Groups that narcotic pain relievers can be divided intoagonists, weak agonists, antagonists, mixed agonist-antagonists
How do narcotics or opiates work?they act on specific receptors in the CNS to reduce the PERCEPTION of pain
What is the targeted receptors for narcotics/opiates class?mu, kappa, delta receptors
Which receptor is the major target for narcotic/opiate class?mu receptor
memorize

Narcotic pain relievers

Question Answer
What is an agonist?something that binds to opioid receptors and activates that, resulting in a full opioid effect
What is the best known agonist?Morphine
Examples of agonistsDextromethorphan,codeine, meperidine, heroin, fentanyl, methadone, morphine
Which agonist reduces the awareness of pain, produces drowsiness and sedation, works in the medulla to suppress cough, constricts eye pupils, depresses respiration, increases resting tone of GI tract muscle tissueMorphine
Which agonist is similar to morphine but does not have the same pain reduction properties, however is an antitussive and found in many over the counter cough medicinesDextromethorphan
Which agonists can be used to suppress cough?morphine, dextromethorphan, codeine
use of codeinepain management even though it is less potent than morphine
other than codeine which other agonist is less potent than morphine?meperidine
A strong analgesic agonist that is more rapid acting that morphine because it is more fat-soluble and passes rapidly through the blood-brain barrier and changes into morphine in the brainheroin
A strong analgesic agonist that is 80 times more potent than morphine, has a short duration of action, and is primarily used by anesthetiologists (ex Tobiel rfnenjrntk4jerfgj)Fentanyl
An effective but addicting analgesic agonist that has a longer duration than morphine and that is used to treat narcotic addiction through a gradual withdrawal process, is taken orallymethadone
What is a weak agonist?an agonist that produces weaker analgesic effects
Examples of weak agoniststapentadol, tramadol
What effect do antagonists have when administered alone?none
Difference between agonist and antagonistsagonists bind to receptors to activate them while antagonists the opioid receptor to deactivate it and block the action of the agonist.
what are antagonists usually used for?to treat opioid overdose by deactivating agonist receptors
example of antagonistnaloxone which is used for narcotic overdose
what are mixed-agonist antagonists?drugs that are agonists at the kappa receptor but antagonists at the mu receptor
drugs in the mixed agonist antagonist classpentazocine which produces effects similar to morphine, buprenorphine, butorphanol
memorize

Psychiatrics drugs

Question Answer
Two major groups of psychiatric drugsantipsychotics, and mood disorder drugs
What are antipsychotic drugs also referred to as?neuroleptic drugs, antischizophrenic drugs
What can antipsychotic drugs be categorized as?a-blockers, muscarinic antagonists, histamine antagonists
Which receptors do antipsychotic drugs target?
How are antipsychotic drugs organized?in order of when they were created
What is the most commonly prescribed group of antidepressants?SSRIs
Examples of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors(SSRIs) fluoxetine, paroxetine, fluvoxamine, sertraline, citalopram
One of the side effects of SNRIsdose-dependent increase in blood pressure
Difference between SSRIs and SNRIsSSRIs inhibit serotonin reuptake while SNRIs inhibit norepinephrine reuptake
Examples of Serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs)duloxetine, desvenlafaxine, venlafaxine
What are second-generation antipsychotics also called?atypical antipsychotics
What are atypical antipsychotics primarily used to treat?schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, autism
What are mood disorder drugs referred to as?antidepressants
Main classifications of mood disorder drugsSSRIs, SNRIs, MAO inhibitors, Heterocyclics, other
Examples of Heterocyclicsdesipramine, imipramine, doxepin
Examples of MAO inhibitorsisocarboxazid, phenelzine, tranylcypromine
Other mood disorder drugsbupropion, nefazodone, trazodone, mirtazapine, sibutramine
Why are heterocyclics called that?because of the chemical structure of the drugs in this class
Mechanism of action of heterocyclicsthey block the reuptake of biogenic amines, including norepinephrine and serotonin
The MAO in MAO inhibitors stands for..?monoamine oxidase inhibitors
Which antidepressants are not used much anymore because they can cause a fatal hypertensive crisis?MAO inhibitors
What to avoid when taking MAO inhibitorsSSRIs, foods rich in tyramine which include beer, cheese, and red wine
MOA of MAO inhibitorsincreasing levels of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine in the blood by inhibiting the degradation of these chemicals
Other mood disorder drugs includebupropion, mirtazapine, sibutramine
An effective antidepressant that's also used for smoking-cessationbupropion
Differs in moa from most other mood disorder drugsmirtazapine
Increases level of norepinephrine and is often prescribed as a weight-loss agent instead of for depressionsibutramine
Primary drug used to treat bipolar disorderlithium
Drugs other than lithium used to treat bipolar disordercarbamazepine, valproate
memorize

Drugs for CNS disorders

Question Answer
cholinesterase inhibitorsex: donepezil, drugs that treat dementia
moa of cholinesterase inhibitorsinhibit cholinesterase ( the enzyme responsible for the degradation of acetylcholine) and therefore increasing the amount of acetylcholine ( by inhibiting its breakdown)
uses for anxiolytics and hypnoticsanxiety, epilepsy, as anesthesia, for induction of sleep
how are drugs in the class of hypnotics and anxiolytics categorizedbased on their chemical structure
two largest groups of anti-anxiety drugsbenzodiazepines, barbiturates
suffix for barbiturates-tal, -barbital
examples of barbituratespentobarbital, thiopental
benzodiazepines suffix-lam, -pam
examples of benzodiazepinesalprazolam, diazepam, lorazepam
what do higher doses of anti-anxiety drugs do?provide more pronounced sedation
what does parkinson's disease involve a loss of?dopamine-containing neurons in the brain
what are the means by which imbalances in the neurons of a parkinson's patient is treated?dopamine replacement, dopamine-agonist therapy, anticholinergic therapy
which drugs are used in dopamine replacement?levodopa, carbidopa
which drug is used in dopamine-agonist therapy?bromocriptine
which drug is the moa and side effects of bromocriptine similar to?levodopa
which means of treating parkinson's disease is less commonly used?anticholinergic therapy
which drug is used in anticholinergic therapy?trihexyphenidyl
what is parkinson's disease?a disease that involves a loss of dopamine-containing neurons in the brain
what is epilepsy?a chronic disorder which involves recurrent episodes of abnormally excessive neuronal discharge in the brain
a drug used in generalized convulsion seizures but can produce fatal hepatic failurevalproate
drug used for partial seizure types and is taken 2-4 times per daycarbamazepine
common side effects of carbamazepinenausea and drowsiness
drug that used to be widely used to treat epilepsy but was replaced by newer drugsphenytoin
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