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Psychopharmacology

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juniperk's version from 2017-01-29 21:45

Section

Question Answer
What is akathisia?intense need to move about; characterized by restless movement, pacing, inability to remain still, and the client’s report of inner restlessness
What are anticholinergic side effects?dry mouth, constipation, urinary hesitancy or retention, dry nasal passages, and blurred near vision; commonly seen as side effects of medication
When are antidepressant drugs primarily used?primarily used in the treatment of major depressive illness, anxiety disorders, the depressed phase of bipolar disorder, and psychotic depression
What is antipsychotic drugs used to treat?also known as neuroleptics; used to treat the symptoms of psychosis such as the delusions and hallucinations seen in schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and the manic phase of bipolar disorder
What are anxiolytic drugs used to treat?used to treat anxiety and anxiety disorders, insomnia, OCD, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and alcohol withdrawal
What is the Black Box Warning?medication package inserts must have a highlighted box, separate from the text, that contains a warning about the life-threatening or otherwise serious side effect(s) of the medication
What is a depot injection?a slow-release, injectable form of antipsychotic medication for maintenance therapy
What is dopamine?a neurotransmitter located primarily in the brain stem;Controls complex movements, motivation, cognition; regulates emotional response
What is dystonia?extrapyramidal side effect to antipsychotic medication; includes acute muscular rigidity and cramping, a stiff or thick tongue with difficulty swallowing, and, in severe cases, laryngospasm and respiratory difficulties; also called dystonic reactions
What is epinephrine?derivative of norepinephrine, Controls fight or flight response
What are extrapyramidal symptoms (EPSs)?neurologic side effects of antipsychotic medications that are drug and dose related; treated with anticholinergic medication; includes dystonia, pseudoparkinsonism, and akathisia
What is the kindling process?the snowball-like effect seen when minor seizure activity seems to build up into more frequent and severe seizures
What is the limbic system?an area of the brain located above the brain stem that includes the thalamus, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and amygdala (although some sources differ regarding the structures that this system includes)
What is neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS)?a potentially fatal, idiosyncratic reaction to an antipsychotic (or neuroleptic) drug
What are neurotransmitters?the chemical substances manufactured in the neuron that aid in the transmission of information throughout the body
What is norepinephrine?the most prevalent neurotransmitter in the nervous system. Causes changes in attention, learning and memory, sleep and wakefulness, mood
What is postinjection delirium/sedation syndrome (PDSS?cluster of symptoms, such as slurred speech, confusion, sedation, altered gait, or unconsciousness that result from accidental intravascular injection of a portion of olanzapine (Zyprexa Relprevv)
What does psychoimmunology examine?examines the effect of psychosocial stressors on the body’s immune system
What happens when symptoms rebound?temporary return of symptoms; may be more intense than original symptoms
What is serotonin syndrome?uncommon but potentially life-threatening disorder called serotonin or serotonergic syndrome; characterized by agitation, sweating, fever, tachycardia, hypotension, rigidity, hyperreflexia, confusion, and, in extreme cases, coma and death; most commonly results from a combination of two or more medications with serotonin-enhancing properties, such as taking MAOI and SSRI antidepressants at the same time or too close together
What is the single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) test?a diagnostic test used to examine the function of the brain by following the flow of an injected radioactive substance
What is tardive dyskinesia?a late-onset, irreversible neurologic side effect of antipsychotic medications; characterized by abnormal, involuntary movements such as lip smacking, tongue protrusion, chewing, blinking, grimacing, and choreiform movements of the limbs and feet
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