Psychology unit of learning. Michael OBrien

michaelobrien's version from 2018-02-19 17:11


Question Answer
LearningA relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience
Habituation An organism's decreasing response to a stimulus with repeated exposure to it
Associative LearningLearning that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimuli(as in classical conditioning ) or a response and its consequences(as in operant conditioning.)
Classical ConditioningA type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events
BehaviorismThe view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with(1) but not with(2)
Unconditioned Response(UR)In classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (US), such as salivation when food is in the mouth.
Unconditioned Stimulus(US)In classical Conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally-naturally and automatically-triggers a response
Conditioned Response(CR)In classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral(but now conditioned) stimulus(CS)
Conditioned Stimulus(CS)In classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus(US), comes to trigger a conditioned response.
AcquisitionIn classical conditioning, the initial stage, when one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response. In operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response.
Higher-order conditioningA procedure in which the conditioned stimulus in one conditioning experience is paired with a new neutral stimulus, creating a second(often weaker) conditioned stimulus. For example, an animal that has learned that a tone predicts food might then learn that a light predicts the tone and begin responding to the light alone(Also called second-order conditioning.)
ExtinctionThe diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus(US) does not follow a conditioned stimulus(CS); Occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced.
Spontaneous RecoveryThe reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response.
GeneralizationThe tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses.
DiscriminationIn classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus.
Learned HelplessnessThe hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events.
Respondent BehaviorBehavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimuli.
Operant ConditioningA type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher.
Operant BehaviorBehavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences.
Law Of EffectThorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely.
Operant ChamberIn operant conditioning research, a chamber(also known as a Skinner box) containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer; attached devices record the animal's rate of bar pressing or key pecking.
ShapingAn operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior.
Discriminative StimulusIn operant conditioning, a stimulus that elicits a response after association with reinforcement(in contrast to related stimuli not associated with reinforcement.
ReinforcerIn operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows.
Positive ReinforcementIncreasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response.
Negative ReinforcementIncreasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as shock. A negative reinforcer is any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response(Note: negative reinforcement is not punishment)
Primary ReinforcerAn innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need.
Conditioned ReinforcerA stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer; also known as a secondary reinforcer.
Continuous ReinforcementReinforcing the desired response every time it occurs.
Partial(intermittent) reinforcementReinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement.
Fixed-ratio Schedulein operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforcers a response only after a specified number of responses.
Variable-Ratio ScheduleIn operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforcers a response after an unpredictable number of responses.
Fixed-interval scheduleIn operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed.
Variable-interval scheduleIn operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforcers a response at unpredictable time intervals.
PunishmentAn event that decreases the behavior that it follows.
Cognitive mapA mental representation of the layout of one's environment. For example, after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it.
Latent LearningLearning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it.
InsightA sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem.
Intrinsic MotivationA desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake.
Extrinsic motivationA desire to perform a behavior to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment.
BiofeedbackA system for electronically recording, amplifying, and feeding back information regarding a subtle physiological state, such as blood pressure or muscle tension.
Observational LearningLearning by observing others. Also called social learning.
ModelingThe process of observing and imitating a specific behavior.
Mirror NeuronsFrontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so. The brain's mirroring of another's actions may enable imitation and empathy
Prosocial behaviorPositive, constructive, helpful behavior. The opposite of antisocial behavior