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Psychology Chapter 9 Terms

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futureradtech's version from 2017-07-31 00:10

Section 1

Question Answer
Motivation A stimulus that can direct behavior, thinking and feeling
IncentiveAn association established between a behavior and its consequences which then motivates that behavior
Extrinsic MotivationThe drive or urge to continue a behavior because of external reinforcers
Intrinsic MotivationThe drive or urge to continue a behavior because of internal reinforcers
Instincts Complex behaviors that are fixed, unlearned and consistent within a species
NeedsPhysiological and psychological requirements that must be maintained at some baseline or constant state
Homeostasis The tendency for bodies to maintain constant states through internal controls
Drive Reduction TheorySuggests that maintaining homeostasis motivates us to meet biological needs
DrivesA state of tension that pushes us or motivates behaviors to meet a need
Arousal TheorySuggests that humans are motivated to seek an optimal level of arousal, or alertness and engagement in the world
Heirarchy of NeedsA continuum of needs that are universal and ordered in terms of the strength of their associated drives
Self ActualizationThe need to be ones best and strive for ones fullest potential
Self Determination TheorySuggests that humans are born with the need for competence, relatedness and autonomy, which are always driving us in the direction of growth and optimal functioning
Need for Achievement A drive to reach attainable and challenging goal especially in the face of competition
Need for PowerA drive to control and influence others
Set PointThe stable weight that is maintained despite variability in exercise and food intake
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Section 2

Question Answer
Anorexia Nervosa An eating disorder identified by significant weight loss, an intense fear of being overweight, a false sense of body image and a refusal to eat the proper amount of calories to achieve a healthy weight
Bulimia Nervosa An eating disorder characterized by extreme overeating followed by purging, with serious health risks
Binge Eating DisorderAn eating disorder characterized by episodes of extreme overeating, during which a larger amount of food is consumed than most people would eat in a similar amount of time under similar circumstances
EmotionA psychological state that includes a subjective or inner experience, a psychological component, and a behavioral expression
James Lange Theory of Emotion Suggests that a stimulus initiates the experience of a psychological and or behavioral reaction, and this reaction leads to the feeling of an emotion
Cannon Bard Theory of EmotionSuggests that environmental stimuli are the starting point for emotions, and physiological or behavioral responses occur at the same time emotions are felt
Schachter Singer Theory of Emotion Suggests that the experience of emotion is the result of physiological arousal and a cognitive label for this physiological state
Cognitive Appraisal Approach Suggests that the appraisal or interpretation of interactions with surroundings causes an emotional reaction
Polygraph Machine used to determine if someone is lying by measuring the physiological arousal associated with that deceit
Display Rules Framework or guidelines for when, how and where an emotion is expressed
Facial Feedback HypothesisThe facial expression of an emotion can affect the experience of that emotion
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