Psychology Chapter 3 Terms

futureradtech's version from 2017-06-17 21:28

Section 1

Question Answer
Sensation The process by which sensory organs in the eyes, ears, nose, mouth, skin and other tissues receive and detect stimuli
PerceptionThe organization and interpretation of sensory stimuli by the brain
Transduction The process of transforming stimuli into neural signals
Data-Based ProcessingTaking basic sensory information about incoming stimuli and processing it for further interpretation
Knowledge- Based ProcessingDrawing on past experiences and knowledge to understand and interpret sensory information
Absolute Threshold The weakest stimuli that can be detected 50% of the time
Sensory Adaptation Sensory receptors tend to become less sensitive to constant stimuli
Difference ThresholdThe minimum difference between two stimuli that can be noticed 50% of the time
Weber's LawThe law stating that each of the five senses has its own constant ratio determining difference thresholds
Signal Detection TheoryA theory explaining how various factors influence our ability to detect weak signals in the environment
WavelengthThe distance between wave peaks (or troughs)
HueThe color of an object, determined by the wavelength of light it reflects
Amplitude The height of a wave; the the distance from midpoint to peak, or from midpoint to the trough of a wave
Saturation Color purity
Cornea The clear outer layer of the eye that shields it from damage ad focuses incoming light waves

Section 2

Question Answer
Iris The muscle responsible for changing the size of the pupil
AccommidationThe process by which the lens changes shape in order to focus on images near and far
RetinaThe layer of the eye that contains photoreceptor cells and the location for the transduction of light energy into neural activity
Photoreceptors Cells that absorb light energy and turn it into chemical and electrical signals for the brain to process
Rods Specialized light receptors in the retina that are responsible for sight when the light level is low; not sensitive to color, but useful for light vision
ConesSpecialized light receptors responsible for our sensation to color and our ability to sense details
Optic NerveThe bundle of axons from ganglion cells leading to the visual cortex
Blind SpotThe location where the optic nerve exits the retina
Feature Detectors Neurons in the visual cortex specialized in detecting specific features of the visual experience, such as angles, lights and movements
Dark Adaptation Ability of the eyes to adjust to dark after exposure to brightness
Light AdaptationAbility of the eyes to adjust to light after being in the dark
Trichromatic TheoryThe perception of color is the result of three types of cones, each sensitive to particular wavelengths in the greens red and blue spectrums
AfterimageAn image that appears to linger in the visual field after its stimulus or source is removed
Opponent-Process TheoryPerception of color derives from a special group of neurons that respond to opponent colors (red-green-blue-yellow)
Audition The sense of hearing
PitchThe degree to which a sound is high or low determined by the frequency of its sound wave
FrequencyThe number of sound waves passing a given point per second; higher frequency is perceived as higher pitch and lower frequency is perceived as lower pitch

Section 3

Question Answer
Cochlea Fluid filled, snail shaped organ of the inner ear, lined with the basilar membrane
Place Theory States that pitch corresponds to the location of the vibrating hair cells along the cochlea
Frequency TheoryStates that pitch is determined by the vibrating frequency of the sound wave, basilar membrane and associated with neural impulses
Volley Principle States the the perception of pitches between 400 and 4000 hz is made possible by neurons working together to fire in volleys
Olfaction The sense of smell
Gustation The sensation of taste
Gate-Control TheorySuggests that the perception of pain will either increase or decrease through the interaction of biopsychosocial factors; signals are sent to open or close "gates" that control the neurological pathways for pain
Kinesthesia Sensory system that conveys information about body position and movement
ProprioceptorsSpecialized nerve endings primarily located in the muscles and joints that provide information about body location and orientatio
Vestibular SenseThe sense of balance and equilibrium
Illusion A perception incongruent with sensory data
GestaltThe natural tendency for the brain to organize stimuli into a whole rather than perceiving the parts and pieces
Figure-GroundThe central principle of gestalt psychology, involving the shifting of focus; as attention is focused on one object, all other features drop or recede into the background
Depth Perception The ability to perceive three dimensional objects and judge distances
Binocular Nerves Information gathered from both eyes to help judge depth and distance
Convergence A binocular cue used to judge the distance and depth based on the tension of the muscles that direct where the eyes are focusing
Retinal disparity A binocular cue that uses the difference between the images the two eyes see to determine the distance of objects

Section 4

Question Answer
Monocular Cues Depth and distance cues that require the use of only one eye
Perceptual Constancy The tendency to perceive objects in our environment as stable in terms of shape, size, color, regardless of changes in the sensory data received
Shape ConstancyAnd object is perceived as maintaining its shape, regardless of the image projected on the retina
Size Constancy An object is perceived as maintaining its size, regardless of the image projected on the retina
Color ConstancyObjects are perceived as maintaining their color, even with changing sensory data.
Perceptual SetThe tendency to perceive stimuli in a specific manner based on past experiences and expectations
Extrasensory Perceptions (ESP)The purported ability to obtain information about the world without any sensory stimuli
ParapsychologyThe study of extrasensory perception

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