Psychology Chapter 2 Terms and Definitions

futureradtech's version from 2017-06-09 00:03

Section 1

Question Answer
NeuroscienceThe study of the brain and nervous system
Biological PsychologyThe branch of psychology that focuses on how the brain and other biological systems influence human behavior
Neurons The building blocks of the nervous system that transmit electrical and chemical signals in the body
Cell BodyThe region of the neuron that includes a nucleus containing DNA, protein producing mechanisms and other structures that nourish the cell
DendritiesTiny, branchlike fibers extending from the cell body that receive messages from other neurons and send information in the direction of the cell body
AxonSkinny tube like structure of neuron that extends from the cell body and which sends messages to other neurons
Myelin SheathFatty substance that insulates the axon and speeds the transmission of of neural messages
SynapseThe tiny gap between a terminal bud of one axon and a neighboring dendrite of the next neuron; junction between neurons where communications occurs
Glial Cells Cells that support, nourish and protect neurons, produce myelin that covers axons
Resting PotentialThe electrical potential of a cell at rest ; the state of a cell when it is not activated
Action Potential The spike in electrical energy that passes through the axon of a neuron, the purpose of which is to convey information
All-Or-NoneA neuron either fires or does not fire ; action potentials are always the same strength
NeurotransmittersChemical messengers that neurons use communicate at the synapse
Receptor Sites The location where neurotransmitters attach on the receiving side of the synaptic gap
ReuptakeProcess by which neurotransmitters are reabsorbed by sending terminal bud
CNSA major component of the human nervous system that includes the brain and spinal cord
PNSThe part of the nervous system that connects that CNS to the rest of the body
Spinal CordThe bundle of neurons that allows communication between the brain and the PNS connecting with the body's muscles, glands and organs

Section 2

Question Answer
Autonomic Nervous SystemThe branch of the peripheral nervous system that controls involuntary processes within the body such as contractions in the digestive tract and activity of glands
Sympathetic Nervous SystemThe division of the autonomic nervous system that mobilizes the Fight or Flight response to stressful or crisis situations
Parasympathetic Nervous systemThe division of the autonomic nervous system that orchestrates the rest and digest response to bring the body back to the non crisis mode
Endocrine SystemThe communication system that uses glands to convey messages by releasing hormones into the blood stream
HormonesChemical Messengers released into the blood stream that influence mood cognition, appetite and many other processes and behaviors
Pituitary GlandThe pea sized gland located in the center of the brain just under the hypothalamus; secretes hormones that dictate the release of hormones by other glands; Known as the Master Gland
Thyroid GlandGland of the endocrine system that regulates the rate of metabolism by secreting thyroxin
Adrenal GlandsPart of the Endocrine system involved in responses to stress as well as the regulation of salt balance
CerebrumThe largest part of the brain, includes virtually all parts of the brain expect primitive brain structures; has two distinct hemispheres
Split Brain OperationA rare procedure used to disconnect he right and left hemispheres by cutting the corpus callosum


Question Answer
LateralizationThe idea that each cerebral hemisphere processes certain types of information and excels in certain activities
Broca's AreaAn area of the cortex that is critical for speech production
Wernicke's AreaA region of the cortex that plays a pivotal role in language comprehension
NeuroplasticityThe brains ability to heal, grow new connections and reorganize in order to adapt to the environment
NeurogenesisThe generation of new neurons in the brain
Stem CellsCells responsible for producing new neurons
PhrenologyAn early approach to explaining the functions of the brain by trying to link the physical structure of the skull with a variety of characteristics

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