Psychology Ch.3

jmlehman's version from 2016-01-24 17:04


Question Answer
Neuronsare individual cells in the nervous system that receive, integrate, and transmit information
• Somaor cell body, contains cell nucleuses and much of the chemical machinery common to most cells
• Dendritesare the parts of a neuron that are specialized to receive information
• Axona long, thin fiber that transmits signals away from the soma to other neurons or to muscles or glands
• Terminal buttonsare small knobs that secrete chemicals called neurotransmitters
• Synapsea junction where information is transmitted from one neuron to another
• Gliaare cells found throughout the nervous system that provide various types of support for neurons
• Resting potentialof a neuron is stable, negative charge when the cell is inactive
• Action potentiala very brief shift in a neurons electrical charge that travels along an axon
• Absolute refactory periodthe minimum length of time after an action potential during which another action potential cannot begin
• Neurotransmitterschemicals that transmit information from one neuron to another
• Postsynaptic potential (PSP) a voltage change at a receptor site on a postsynaptic cell membrane
• Reuptakea process in which neurotransmitters are sponged up from the synaptic cleft by the presynaptic membrane
• Agonista chemical that mimics the action of a neurotransmitter
• Antagonista chemical the opposes the action of a neurotransmitter
• Peripheral nervous systemis made up of all those nerves that lie outside the brain and spinal cord.
• Nervesare bundles of neuron fibers (axons) that are routed together in the peripheral nervous system
• Somatic nervous systemis made up of the nerves that connect to voluntary skeletal muscles and to sensory receptors
• Afferent nerve fibersare axons that carry information inward to the central nervous system from the periphery of the body
• Efferent nerve fibersare axons that carry information outward from the central nervous system to the periphery of the body
• Autonomic nervous system (ANS)is made up of the nerves that connect to the heart, blood vessels, smooth muscles, and glands
• The sympathetic divisionis the branch of the automatic nervous system that mobilizes the bodys resources for emergencies
• The parasympathetic divisionis the branch of the autonomic nervous system that generally conserves bodily resources
• The central nervous system (CNS)consists of the brain and the spinal cord
• The electroencephalograph (EGG)is a device that monitors the electrical activity of the brain over time by means of recording electrodes attached to the surface of the scalp
• Lesioninginvolves destroying a piece of the brain
• Electrical stimulation of the brain (ESB)involves sending weak electric current into a brain structure to stimulate (activate it)
• Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)is a new technique that permits scientists to temporarily enhance or depress activity in a specific area of the brain
• Hindbrainincludes the cerebellum and two structures found in the lower part of the brainstem: the medulla and the pons
• The midbrainis the segment of the brainstem that lies between the hindbrain and the forebrain
• The forebrainis the largest and most complex region of the brain, encompassing a variety of structures, including the thalamus, hypothalamus, limbic system, and celebrum
• The limbic systemis a loosely connected network of structures located roughly along the border between the cerebral cortex and deeper subcortical areas
• The cerebral cortexis the intricately folded outer layer of the celebrum
• The cerebral hemispheresare the right and left halves of the cerebrum
• The corpus callosumis the structure that connects the two cerebral hemispheres
• Mirror neuronsare neurons that are activated by performing an action or by seeing another monkey or person perform the same actions
• Neurogenesisthe formation of new neurons
• Split-brain surgerythe bundle of fibers that connect the cerebral hemispheres (the corpus callosum) is cut to reduce the severity of epileptic seizures
• Perceptual asymmetriesright-left imbalances between the cerebral hemispheres in the speed of visual or auditory processing
• The endocrine systemconsists of glands that secrete chemicals into the bloodstream that help control bodily functioning
• Hormonesare the chemical substances released by the endocrine glands
• Pituitary glandsreleases a great variety of hormones that fan out around the body, stimulating actions in the other endocrine glands
• Oxytocina hormone released by the pituitary gland, which regulates reproductive behaviors
• Chromosomesare strands of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) molecules that carry genetic information
• Zygotea single cell formed by the union of a sperm and an egg
• Genesare DNA segments that serve as the key functional units in hereditary transmission
• Homozygous conditionthe two genes in specific pair are the same.
• Heterozygous conditionthe two genes in a specific pair are different
• Dominant geneis one that is expressed when paired genes are different
• Recessive geneis one that is masked when paired genes are different
• Genotyperefers to a persons genetic makeup
• Phenotyperefers to the ways a person genotype is manifested in observable characteristics
• Polygenic traitsor characteristics that are influenced by more than one pair of genes
• Family studiesresearchers assess heredity influence by examining blood relatives to see how much they resemble one another on a specific trait
• Twin studiesresearchers access hereditary influence by comparing the resemblance of identical twins and fraternal twins with respect to a trait
• Identical (monozygotic) twinsemerge from one zygote that splits for unknown reasons
• Fraternal (dizygotic) twinsresult when two eggs are fertilized simultaneously by different sperm cells, forming two separate zygotes
• Adoption studiesassess hereditary influence by examining the resemblance between adoption children and both their biological and adoptive parents
• Fitnessrefers to the reproductive success (number of descendants) of an individual organism relative to the average reproductive success in the population
• Natural selectionclaims that heritable characteristics that provide a survival or reproductive advantage are more likely than alternative characteristics to be passed on to subsequent generations and thus come to be “selected” over time
• An adaptationis an inherited characteristic that increased in a population (through natural selection) because it helped solve a problem of survival or reproduction during the time it emerged.
• A critical periodis a limited time span in the development of an organism when it is optimal for certain capacities to emerge because the organism is especially responsive to certain experiences