Psychology Ch.2

jmlehman's version from 2016-01-24 16:56


Question Answer
Theoryis a system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observations
Operational definitiondescribes the actions or operations that will be used to measure or control a variable
Participants or subjectsthe persons or animals whose behavior is systematically observed in a study
Data collection techniquesprocedures for making empirical observations and measurements
Journalis a periodical that publishes technical and scholarly material, usually in a narrowly defined area of inquiry
Experimentis a research method in which the investigator manipulates a variable under carefully controlled conditions and observes whether any changes occur in a second variable as a result
Independent variableis a condition or event that an experimenter varies in order to see its impact on another variable
Dependent variablevariable that is thought to be affected by manipulation of the independent variable
Experimental groupconsists of the subjects who receive some special treatment in regard to the independent variable.
The control groupconsists of similar subjects who do not receive the special treatment given to the experimental group
Extraneous variablesany variables other than the independent variable that seem likely to influence the dependent variable in a specific study
Confounding of variablesoccurs when two variables are linked together in a way that makes it difficult to sort out their specific effects
Random assignmentof subjects occurs when all subjects have an equal chance of being assigned to any group or conditions in the study
Naturalistic observationa researcher engages in careful observation of behavior without intervening directly with the subjects
Reactivityoccurs when a subject’s behavior is altered by the presence of an observer
Case studyis an in-depth investigation of an individual subject
Surveyresearchers use questioners or interviews to gathering information about specific aspects of participant’s background, attitudes, beliefs, or behavior
Statisticsis the use of mathematics to organize, summarize, an interpret numerical data
Medianthe score that falls exactly in the center of a distribution of scores
Meanis the arithmetic average of the scores in a distribution
Modethe most frequent core in a distribution
Variabilityrefers to how much the scores in a data set vary from each other and from the mean
Inferential statisticsused to interpret data and draw conclusions
Statistical significanceis said to exist when the probability that the observed findings are due to chance is very low
Standard deviationis an index of the amount of variability in a set of data
Correlationexists when two variables are related to each other.
Correlation coefficientis a numerical index of the degree of relationship between two variables
Inferential statisticsare used to interpret data and draw conclusions
Replicationis the repetition of a a study to see whether the earlier results are duplicated
Meta-analysiscombines the statistical results of many studies of the same question, yielding an estimate of the size and constancy of a variables effects
Sampleis the collection of subjects selected for observation in an empirical study
Populationis the much larger collection of animals or people (from which the sample is drawn) that researchers want to generalize about
Sampling biasexists when a sample is not reprehensive of the population from which it is drawn
Placebo effectsoccur when participants expectations lead them to experience some change even though they receive empty, fake, or ineffectual treatment
Social desirable biaswhich is a tendency to give socially approved answers to questions about oneself
Response setis a tendency to respond to questions in a particular way that is unrelated to the content of the questions
Halo effectwhich occurs when ones overall evaluation of a person, object, or institution spills over to influence more specific ratings
Experimenter biasoccurs when a researchers expectations or preferences about the outcome of a study influence the result obtained
Double blind procedureis a research strategy in which neither participants nor experimenters know which subjects are the experimental or control groups
interactionthe effect of one variable depends on the effect of another
hypothesisa tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables
variablesany measurable conditions, events, characteristics, or behaviors that are controlled or observed in a study