Psychology CH.1

jmlehman's version from 2016-01-24 16:50


Question Answer
Consciousnessthe awareness of immediate experience
Structuralismwas based on the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and investigate how these elements are related
Introspectionthe careful, systematic, self observation of ones own conscious experience
subjectperson being studied
functionalismbased on the belief that psychology should investigate the function or purpose of consciousness, rather than its structure
Natural selectionheritable characteristics that provide a survival or reproductive advantage are more likely than alternative characteristics to be passed on to subsequent generations and thus came to be selected over time.
stream of consciousnessflow of thoughts
unconsciousaccording to Freud, contains thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert great influence or behavior
Psychoanalytic theoryattempts to explain personality, motivation, and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of behavior
Behaviorismis a theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behavior
Behavior: refers to any overt (observable response or activity by organism
Question Answer
Humanismis a theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, especially their freedom and their potential for personal growth.
Applied psychologythe branch of psychology concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders
Cognitionrefers to the mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge
Evolutionary psychologyexamines behavioral processes in terms of theor adaptive value for members of a species over the course of many generations
Positive Psychologyuses theory and research to better understand the positive, adaptive, creative, and fulfilling aspects of human existence
Psychologyis the science that studies behavior and the psychological and cognitive processes that underlie it, and it is the profession that applies the accumulated knowledge of this science to practical problems
Psychiatryis the branch of medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders
Empiricismthe premise that knowledge should be acquired through observation
Theorya system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observations
Culturerefers to the widely shared customs, and other products of a community that are transmitted socially across generations
Testwisenessis the ability to use the characteristics and format of cognitive test to maximize ones score
Critical thinkingis a purposeful, reasoned, goal directed thinking that involves solving problems, formulating inferences, working with probabilities, and making carefully thought-out decisions