Psychology AS- Memory

elliehilton's version from 2015-05-03 12:13

Section 1

Question Answer
who conducted research into the duration of STM?Peterson and Peterson
explain the procedures of research into the duration of STMlab experiment, 24 student ppts briefly shown nonsense trigrams. counted back in threes from a 3 digit number to prevent rehearsal. gaps of 3,6,9,12,15 and 18 seconds before recall
explain the findings of research into the duration of STM3 seconds=above 80% accuracy, 12s=20%, 18s=below 10%
who conduced research into the duration of LTM?Bahrick et al
explain the procedures of research into the duration of LTMnatural experiment, 392 american high school graduates who left school 3 months to 48 years ago
explain the findings of research into the duration of LTMfree recall- 15 yrs=60%accuracy, 48yrs=30%. Photo recognition- 15yrs=90%, 48yrs=70%, Name+Photo Match 15yrs=90%, 48yrs=80%
what research has been done into the capacity of STMJacobs and Miller's serial digit span technique
explain the procedures of research into the capacity of STMppts shown a sequence of digits, then asked to repeat in the correct order. the sequence increases by one digit each time.
explain the findings of research into the capacity of STMaverage span= 5-9 digits (miller called this the magic number seven 7+/-2)
who conducted research into encoding of STM?Conrad
explain the procedure of research into the encoding of STMlab experiment. ppts presented visual sequence of 6 consonants which are accoustically similar or disimilar. recall in correct order
explain the findings of research into encoding of STMmost errors were substituting similar sounding letters, despite being presented visually
who conducted research into the encoding of LTM?Baddely
explain the procedures of research into the encoding of LTMlab experiment. 4 groups of ppts shown 10 words to recall after 20 minutes. words were acoustically similar or dissimilar or semantically similar or dissimilar
explain the findings of research into the encoding of LTMaccoustically similar/dissimilar= 70%accuracy, semantically similar=55%, semantically dissimilar=85%

Section 2

Question Answer
how does information enter the sensory store in the MSM?via the senses e.g ears or eyes
what is encoding in the sensory store?multi-modal
what is the capacity of the sensory store?Large
what is the duration in the sensory store?less than a second
how is information lost from the sensory store?decay (where an engram fades)
how does information transfer from the sensory store to the STM?through paying attention
what is key to maintaining information in the STM? rehearsal
how is information encoded in the STM?acoustically
what is the capacity of the STM?7+/-2 (5-9)
what is the duration of STM?20 seconds
how is information lost from the STM?decay or displacement (new information replaces old)
who proposed the Multi Store Model? Atkinson and Shiffrin
how is information encoded in LTM?semantically
what isthe capacity of LTM?unlimited
what is the duration of LTM?years to a lifetime
how is information lost from LTM?decay, repression, interference or retrieval failure
give 2 stregnths of the Multi Store modeldisticntly different stores-- Peterson+Ptereson/Bahrick supporting evidence. also, Clive Wearing (virus conducted amnesia) lost his STM but LTM remained intact
give 2 limitations of the Multi Store Modelflashbulb memories don't require rehearsal. KF motorbike- lost visual STM but not verbal- suggest STM is more than just a unitary store
explain Glanzer and Cunitz' primary recency effectfirst words rehearsed the most so go into LTM, last words still in STM but words in the middle forgotten
what is the prediction of the Multi Store Model?stregnth of memory in LTM depends upon the amount of rehearsal in STM

Section 3

Question Answer
who came up with the Working Memory Model?Baddely and Hitch
what are the main features of the central executive?most important component, flexible, pays attention, coordinates slave systems, planner, problem solver, decision maker, limited capacity
what are the two sections of the phonological loop?phonological store and the articulatory store
explain what the phonological store doesholds information that we hear for 2 seconds (inner ear)
explain what the articulatory store doessilently repeats items held in the phonological store (inner voice)
what does the episodic buffer do?blends information from the other components and outs things into chronological order. it was added to the WMM in 2000
what does the visuo spatial sketchpad do? processes visual and spatial information (what things look like and the relationship between objects) this is the inner eye.
what are the predictions of the Working Memory Model?if 2 simultaneous tasks are performed using the same component, they will difficult to perform, but if they are using different components they should be possible to perform
give 2 stregnths of the Working Memory ModelHitch and Baddely supporting evidence (simulatious task study) and KF-verbal not visual (supports more complex stores)
give 2 limitations of the Working Memory Modelcentral executive is alledly the most improtant component, but the one we know least about. also EVR tumor removed and could solve problems but couldnt make deicisions (Central executive not unitary store)

Section 4

Question Answer
what research has been done into misleading wquestions in eye witness testimony??Lofus and Palmer car crash study
explain the procedures of reasearch into misleading questions is EWTlab experiment with independant groups designn. 45 american student ppts shown video of car crash in 5 groups then completed a questionnnaire asking critical question where verb changes for each group
explain the procedures of research into misleading questions in ErWTSmashed=41mph, Collided=39, Bumped=38, Hit=34, Contacted =32
GIVE 2 STREGNTH S ofthe car crash studyeasily replicated so reliable. high control over extraneous variables
give 2 limitations of the car crash studylow eco val (video less stressful than irl) low pop val (all students- better m,emory than oldies)
what research has been done into the effect of anxiety on EWT?Loftus et al weapon focus study
explain the procedures of the weapon focus studylab exp + independant groups.. 1) no weapons- convo, pen, grease. 2)weapons- heated convo, crashing, paper knife, blood. 50 photos
explain the findings of the weapon focus studyno weapons= 49% accuracy, weapons= 33%
give 2 stregnths og the weapon focus stufyhighy controlled, easily repeatabel. reliable
give 2 limitatiosn of the weapong fosuc studylow eco val, high chanche of demand charactersitics
explain the follow up study to the weapon focus oneLoftus et al- speicial goggles track witness eye movements showed attention drawn to weapon not face or other things
explain the contrASATNG research of the weapon focus studyYuille and Cutshall (lol) real life crime study - 13 witness armed shop robbery. interviewed 5 moneths later and matched to their initial report. found ppts who repoted high levels of stress had 80% accurate recall
what research has been done uinto the effects of age on EWT?Anastasi and Rhodes attractiveness study (judgmental bitches lmao)
explain t]anastasi and rhodes attractiveness study PROCEDURESlab exp+repeated measure.. 3 groups 18-25yrs, 35-45, 55-78. 24 photos attractiveness rating-- 48 photos prepitition recall.
explain the findings of anastasi and rhodes attractiveness studyyyoung and middle aged more accurate.. own age bias.
give 2 stregnths of research into age in EWTpop val= wide range of ppl so can generalise. findings are useful to police and legal systems (social vlue0
give 2 limitations of reaserch into age in EWTlow eco val.

Section 5

Question Answer
what are the key features of standard interview ?free recall, variable, rapid fire questions, frequent interuptions, closed and misleading queations
what are the key featurs of cognitive interviwq?recreate the context, report every detail, recall in different order, change persective
what are the supporting studies for cognitive interview?Giesemen- compare si +ci on 89 studetns 48 hrs after showing them a video- ci= more correct ansewrs and less confabulated.
what did dennet find?ci most accurate (he reviewed 27 other studies to conclude this)
who created the encoding specificity principle?tulving and thompson
what is the encoding specificity preinciple?retrieval cues= better recall. !external cues=context dependant 2) internal cues= state dependant
what is the supporting evidnece for the encoding specificity principle?Godden and Baddely- divers learnt 40 words on land or 20 ft underwater. 1/2 0swapped location then they all rcalled the words. those in same location remembered more. PRACTICAL APPLICATOR- oil and gas industries now train divers underwater

Section 6

Question Answer
what is an acronym?made up word formed from the initial letter of other words- must be pronouncable eg LOL
what is an acrosic?same as acronyme but with words not letters
explain the method of lociimagine walking through familiar location and create mental image of placing things you need to remember as walking through house. when you need to remember walk back through hpuse mentally
how does the method of loci work? dual encoding hypothesis- stronger memory as encoded visually and verbally. also mental image of house acs as retreival cues
give 2 strengths of verbal mnemonics Bower- students 2 words MOFL=72% acc OTHER=28%
give 2 limitations of verbal mnemonicsno good for people who are blind, deaf or dyslexic