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Psychology 120 all

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tasnimjaisee's version from 2017-05-23 05:45

Section 1

Question Answer
What is psychology generally?behaviour and mental processes; effected by physical/mental states and external enviornment
AnecdoteGeneralization
Occam's razor ↑ evidence ; ↓ assumption
Historical psychologists Aristotale and Zoraster
Thieve bumpsLarge above ears
1st psychology lab1879 by Wudnt in Germany → sense and perception
BaldwinWudnt's student @ UofT founded modern psychology in Canada
How did Wudnt do researchbreak behaviour in basic elements
Structuralism Titchener, following Wudnt's ideas, "what". ex.differing metronome clicks
Why was structuralism done away with?Mind being boring
FunctionalismJames, consciousness (Introspection) "how and why"; broadened horizon to newer aged volunteers
Why was functionalism done away with?lacked theory and precision
Mind Cure MovementCognitive therapies
James-Lange theory of emotionWe become afraid because we run & our heart races
How was the theory of emotion ridden?Cannon & Bard proved visceral organs is far to slow to produce emotional response
Biological perspectiveBodily events effecting behaviour
Comparative ApproachAnimals to Humans
Long term PoentiationOccurs after learning @ neuron level
Learning Perspectiveenvironment affecting actions
Behaviourism Watson: Reward/Punishment from enviornment
Socio-CognitiveMorals
Operant ConditioningEnforce rewards
Priming Task↑ task performance
Sematic descriptive wordsDependent on how things are pictured/memorized
What perspective did the Milgram and Zimbardo fit into?Sociocultural
2 types of psychologists with degreesPsychoanalysts and Psychiatrists
When was the Canadian Psychological Association (CPA) formed?1939
memorize

Section 2

Question Answer
Objective tests Aware subjects
Projective tests Unaware subjects
Test-retest reliabilityScores similar in all sessions
Alternate-forms test reliabilityScores similar in all different test versions
Inter-rater reliabilityexamines whether two different scorers assess data in a similar fashion
Face validity of testsappears to do what it claims to do
Content Validity of Tests Measures what its defined to do leaving other aspects ex. lack of english
Criterion Validity of a TestPredict criterion
Correlation coefficient-1.00 to +1.00
Confounding Variablecorrelated to both the dependent variable and independent variable
Independent T-TestsCompare means of 2 experimental groups only
Dependent T-testscompares the same experimental group on 2 separate measures
ANOVACompare means of 2+ experimental groups to determine if statistical Significance is reached
Post-hocorders the means from largest to smallest and then make comparisons amongst all the means to determine which means differ significantly from each other
Cross-sectional studiesparticipants of different ages compared at a given time
Longitudinal studiesSame participants reassessed over time
Meta analysisVariance in the same variable
Effect size variability in independent variable (e.g. drug dose)
Volunteer BiasNot a fll calculation sample
Experimenter effectParticipant behaviour changing because experimenter cues change
Descriptive statisticssumarizes data from research
Inferential statisticsInference how meaningful results are
Standard deviationAverage difference between scores
Confidence intervalDetects true mean
Bayesian statisticFormular for calculating hypotheses's truenss
memorize

Section 3

Question Answer
Who started nature vs Nurture debate?Descartes
Mind Body DichotomyDescartes
Descartes' 2 elementsphysical matter and spirit
Descartes believed the brain belonged to the?body
Descartes believed the mind belonged to the?non-physical soul in the pineal glad
NativistsNature
EmpericistsNurture
Sherringtonreflex chain and inhibition of nervous system
histonesattach to tails of portein altering dna activity
Trauma influences gene expression viaDNA binding proteins
Evolutionary psychologycommonalities in psychology
Linkage studiesphysical/mental attributes from genes lying close to each other
Genetic Markersame DNA segment on chromosome showing the same trait in individuals (ex. depression in family)
Do genes account for > 1 behaviours?yes
What does the code within a gene enocode forproteins
MutationChanges in copying original DNA
Intersexual selectionPick out partner based on physical factors
Intrasexual selectionSame sexes competes for partner of the other sex
Mental Modulespecialized brain sections to handle survival problems
Innate human characteristicsrefleces, novelty, exploration, silliness, cognition
3 critics to evolutionary viewssteriotype, convinience sampling, say vs do, flinstone problem
Heritabilitytotal varience proportion that causes genetic differences
Heritability FactorsApplies only to groups in particular envornment, Doesn't apply to individuals only to variance, modified by enviornment
Similar enviornment has ____ heritabilityhigher
Diverse enviornment has ____ heritabilitylower
Identical twins share ____ of their genesall
Fraternal twins share ____ of their genes1/2
What reduces mental abilitiesPoor pre-natal care, malnutrition, toxins, stressful family
operator genedetermines if gene starts at synthesis protein
Expression of structural genedna unravels, messanger rna attaches to ribosomes, then ribosome moves along mrna translating genetic code, the more that is read sequence is grown
Neurons at rest Nadriven by electrostasis and concentration gradient (70mV + 50mV)
Neurons at rest K+driven by electrostasis and concentration gradient (70mV in and 90mV out)
Neurons at rest Cl@ equilibrium (70mV in and 70mV out)
2 factors of unequal distributionrandom motion, electrostatic pressure, passive diffusion
memorize
Neurons at rest NaK+: driven by electrostasis and concentration gradient (3 Na+ for 2K+)
Question Answer
properties for signaling ion channelsconduct rapidly, recognize ion types, open and close o chemical signals
Types of ion channelsvoltage gate, ligand gate
What happens when NT is receivedMay vary in polarizing, hyper polarize or inactivate
Post synapictic deporlarizationsexcitatory PSP
Post synapictic hyperolarizationsinhibitory PSP
ESPSneuron's wil fire
ISPSneurons won't fire
What happens when AP reaches end of axons?Ca2+ channel opens, ruses to sure with presynapctic cell, neurotransmitter binds to pre/postsynaptic cell, either EPSP or IPSP is created
memorize

Section 4

Question Answer
Central NSbrain and spinal cord
Peripheral NSSensory and motor nerves
Somatic NSConnects sensory receptors to skeletal muscles
Afferent nervescarries info from sensory organs to CNS
Efferent nervescarries info from CNS to sensory organs
Autonomic NSRegulates glands and organs made of afferents
Sympathetic NSMobilizes resources and increases energy output during emotional stages
Parasympathetic NSOperates during relaxed states and conserves energy
NeuronElectrochemical signals; basic unit of nervous cell (look like snowflakes)
GliaSupport neurons and cleans up after them dying
How many cells are in the brain171Billion
DendritesActs like antennas recieving messages from 10k other cells (look like branches)
Cell bodyHas a nucleus wutg DBA cintrolling growth and reproduction, keeps neuron alive (look like sphere/pyramid)
AxonTransmits message from cell body to other cells
Axon TeriminalsDivide at the axon end
Myelin sheathLayer of fat covering axon (in CNS made of gials)
NodesDivides myelin sheath into segments
What are "nerves" made of ?Axons and dendrites in PNS
How many pairs of peripheral nerves are there?43
How many Cranial nerve pairs are there ?12
NeurogenesisNew neurons from immature stem cells
Embryonic stems are p____ ?pluripotent
Induced pluripotent cellsAre from adult cells but are hard to keep alive
Synaptic cleftAxon terminal of one neuron touches dendrite/ cell body of another
Synapsenerve umpulse
Action potentialWhen stimulated neuron, sodium ions rush in increasing positivity --> electrical impulse
If axon is unmyelinatedEach axon gives action potential, like domino falling
If axon is myelinatedNa and K can't cross membrane except between nodes, AP hops from one node to another
Are nerve impulses slower in children?Yes because Myelin sheath hasn't developed
NeurotransmitterChemical released by neuron at synapse altering neuron activity
Synaptic vesiclesrelease neurotransmitter
How neurons communicateOccurs at synapse, When action potential reaches end of axon, neurotransmitters get released into synaptic cleft. When these molecules bind to receptor sites on recieving neurons, they are less to fire. Message reaches final area depending on neuron's firing behaviour
Neurotransmitter carrierVersitle messangers
GABAgamma aminobutyric acid, inhibitory Neurotransmitter in brain
Glutamate excitatory Neurotransmitter
Acetylcholinemuscle action, cognition, memory and emotion
Norepinephrine↑ heart rate ; ↓ intestine activity in stress
Which neurotransmitter causes alzheimer?lack of Acetylcholine
Which neurotransmitter causes parkinsons?lack of dopemine
Which neurotransmitter causes alzheimer?lack of Acetylcholine
Which neurotransmitter causes multiple sclerosis?↑ of glutamate killing glials who make mylin
Hormone carrierslong-distant messengers
Endoctorine glandsproduce hormones and release into blood
MelatoninMade by pineal gland in brain; biological rhythms like sleep
OxytocinMade by pituitary gland; for uterine contraction and breastfeeding, with vasopressin promotes attachment
Adrenal hormoneMade by adrenal gland above kidney; emotion and stress
CartisolMade by outer part of adrenal gland; ↑ blood-sugar and energy levels
EpinephrineMade by inner part of adrenal gland; Arousal level for action
Sex HormonesMade by gonad tissues and adrenal glands
Sex Hormones: AndrogenMasculinizing (ex. testosterone)
Sex Hormones: EstrogenFeminizing
Sex Hormones: ProgesteroneMaintains uterine lining for fertilization
Does Progesterone and Estrogen fluctuation causes mood shifts ?No
Neuromodulatorsbrain's volume control
Seratonin transportertype of neuromodulator; picks up seratonin from cleft
endorphinsType of endogenous oploid peptides; reduce pain
Transcranial magnetic stimulationVirtual lesion; Current through wire on head / Used for motor response triggers / Con: hard to tell which neuron is at work
Transcranial dirrect current stimulationElectric current on cortex, area is temporarily toyed with
electroencephalogramReflects too many activites, hearabele
Event related potentialsrecords waves associated with stimuli, can't know where but can know when
Position emission tomographyAnalyzying brain chemistry by injecting gucose-like substances like radioactive elements
Magnetic resonance imagingstudying brain tissue with magnet fields and radio receivers
Functional magnetic resonance imagingUsed for brain activies associated with thoughts
Issues with brain scannersMisleading colors, can be gullibly "scientifically reasoned", poor procedure correlation ex. sound interference
Brain stem has 2 partsPons and Medula
PonsSleeping, walking and dreaming
MedulaFunctions that don't have to be willed (ex. heart and breathing rates)
Reticular activating stemArouses cortex and streams new information
CerebellumMovement and balance
ThalamusPuts sensory messages to their needed place excluding smell
Olfactory bulbMaintains smells
HypothalamusMaintains homestasis
Pituitary GlandHypothalamus sends chemicals to gland for other endocrine glands
HippocampusStores information
CerebrumHigherthinking
LateralizationSpecialization of 2 halves of cerebrum hemispheres
Occipital lobesIn the lower back of brain, has visual cortex
Parietal lobesIn the brain's top, has somatosensory cortex, feels pressure and awareness of spatial relations
Temporal lobesIn the side's of brain above ears and behind temples, has auditory cortex and memories
Wernicke's arealanguage comprehension in temporal lobes
Broca's areaSpeech production
Prefrontal cortexContains personality; Phineas Gage story
What parts of the cat brains were lesionedcorpus callosum
Oculomotorpupil's reaction to light
trochleardown/in eye movements
trigeminaljaw movements
Aducenlateral eye movement
Vestibulocochlearhearing and body motion
glossopharyngealgag reflex
Vagusvoice
hypoglossaltounge
CNS is covered byMeninges
Meningesdura (held by periostium), arachnoid, pia
How many ventricles are in the brain4
Chlorid plexusescome out from pia
Areas that don't have BBBposterior pituitary, area postrema
Interneuronsno axons
Oligodendragialmylenate for CNS several at a time
schwannmylenate for PNS one at a time
Factors effective ion distributioneven - random motion, electrostasis AND uneven - selectively permiable, NA&P pump (3Na out and 2K+ in)
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Section 5

Question Answer
EntrainmentInflux of biological rhythms with external cues
EndogenousWithin rather than external cues
Circadian rhythm24 hour cues
Suprachiasmatic nucleusIn hypothalamus, contains biological clock (circadian rhythm)
MelatoninReleased by SCN, it rises when sleeping in the dark
Internal desynchronizationBiological rhythms not insync with others
ChronotypeIndividual's pattern of sleep and wakefulness
PMSPhysical issues are seen but emotional issues are rare
Stages of sleepCycles of 90 minutes with REM averaging 20 minutes but can be few minutes to an hour
5 sleep stepsSleep rapid, sleep irregular, sleep spindles, delta waves appear, mostly delta, rapid/irregular
Sleep apneaBreathing stops during sleeping
Necrolepsyunpredictable daytime sleepiness into REM sleep
REM behaviour disorderparalysis doesn't happend so patients do what they're dreaming of
ConsolidationSynaptic changes associated with stored memories become stable causing memories to be stable
Activation synthesis theoryDreaming results from cortical synthesis and interpretation of neural signals by lower brain activity
Most psychoactive drugs are categorized as opiates, psychedelics, stimulants and depressants (weed falls out from here)
Nucleui that control sleepgigantocellular tegmental field, locus, Raphe
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