the psychosis in in the form of catatonic behavior. include extremely retarded or excited motor activity and other peculiar behaviors.
activity may manifest as stupor, a complete cessation of voluntary speech or movement, or freezing for an extended time in an uncomfortable or strange position.
activity may manifest as purposeless hyperactvity that is not influenced by external stimuli.
include negativism (resisting instuctions for no apparent reason), mannerisms (unnecessary movements or flourishes during goal-directed), posturing (assuming bizarre or inappropriate poses) , and grimacing.
the basic criteria for schizophrenia are met, but the symptoms do not fit into one of the subtypes described above.
the acute phase has resolved and the criteria for schizophrenia are no longer met, but the person still appears odd and some symptoms are still present in milder forms.
brief psychotic disorder
has displayed at least one basic psychotic symptom for less than one month.
has displayed the symptoms of schizophrenia for a period of one to six months, during which the symptoms may or may not have interfered with the person's functioning in life.
combines mood and psychotic symptoms: in this disorder, both the symptoms of schizophrenia and a major depressive, manic, or mixed episode are experienced for at least one month.
is more than moodiness; it is a persistent pattern of abnormal mood serious enough to cause significant personal distress and/or significant impairment to social, occupational, or personal functioning.
major depressive disorder, dysthymic disorders, biopolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder, and cyclothymic disorder.
major depressive disorder
has suffered on or more major depressive episodes.
is less a intense, chronic form of depression.
experience cyclic mood episodes at both extremes or "poles": depression and mania.
bipolar I disorder
has experienced at least one manic or mixed episode.
for at least one week, a person has experienced an abnormal euphoric, unrestrained, or irritable mood, with at least three of the following symptoms:grandiose, exaggerated, or delusional self-esteem, high energy with little need for sleep, increased talkativeness and pressured speech, poor judgment.these symptoms are severe enough to cause psychotic features
bipolar I disorder
the manic phases are less extreme. experinced cyclic moods, including at least one major depressive episode and one hypomanic episode, and no manic or mixed episode.
for at least four days, a person has experienced an abnormally euphoric or irritable mood, with at least three of the symptoms for a manic episode, but less severe level.
is similar to bipolar disorder but the moods are less extreme. experienced cyclic moods, including many hypomanic episodes, as well as many episodes of depressed mood that are milder than a major depressive episode for at least two years.
the disruptions in awareness, memory, and identity are extreme and/or frequent, and they cause distress or impair the person’s functioning. can be triggered by severe stress or psychological conflicts, and they usually begin and end suddenly.
of severe memory loss can also be caused by general medicalconditions, such as alcohol, drug, or medication use, or by certain anxiety disorders.
has had at least one episode of suddenly forgetting some important personal information, usually related to severe stress or trauma. The person may wander aimlessly during the episode.
suddenly goes on a journey, during which he or she cannot recall personal history prior to the journey. The journey usually lasts only a few hours or days, during which the person may be disoriented, confused, or even violent.journey lasts several months, and involves the assumption of a new identity and occupation.recovery of prior memories but amnesia for the episode.
dissociative identity disorder
alternates among two or more distinct personality states (or identities), only one of which interacts with other people at any one time. The identities may vary widely in age, gender, and personality traits, and they may or may not be aware of each other.
has a recurring or persistent feeling of being cut off or detached from his or her body or mental processes, as if observing themselves from the outside. The person may also experience a feeling that the external world is unreal.it is usually triggered by stress.
is an enduring, rigid set of personality traits that deviates from cultural norms, impairs functioning, and causes distress either to the person with the disorder or to those in his or her life.
A person is not considered
to have a personality disorder if he or she is a child or has a mood, psychotic, developmental, or general medical disorder that could be causing the symptoms.
cluster into three categories.
includes the paranoid, schizoid, and schizotypal personality disorders associated with irrational, withdrawn, cold, or suspicious behaviors.
includes the antisocial, borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic personality disorders associated with emotional, dramatic, and attention- seeking behaviors, and intense conflict.
includes the avoidant, dependent, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders, associated with tense, anxious, over- controlled behaviors.
paranoid personality disorder
mistrusts and misinterprets others’ motives and actions without sufficient cause, suspecting them of deceiving, harming, betraying, or attacking him or her. The person tends to be guarded, tense, and self-sufficient.
schizoid personality disorder
is a loner with little interest or involvement in close relationships, even those with family members. The person seems unaffected emotionally by interactions with other people, appearing instead detached or cold.
schizotypal personality disorder
has several traits that cause problems interpersonally, including constricted or inappropriate affect; magical or paranoid thinking; and odd beliefs, speech, behavior, appearance, and perceptions. The person tends to have no confidants other than close relatives. Many cases eventually develop schizophrenia.
antisocial personality disorder
has a history of serious behavior problems beginning as a young teen, including significant aggression against people or animals; deliberate property destruction; lying or theft; and serious rule violation. the person has a history of repeatedly disregarding the rights of others in various ways, through illegal activities, dishonesty, impulsiveness, physical fights, disregard for safety, financial irresponsibility, and lack of remorse.
borderline personality disorder
suffers from enduring or recurrent instability in his or her impulse control, mood, and image of self and others. Impulsive and reckless behavior, together with extreme mood swings, reactivity, and anger, can lead to unstable relationships and to damage both of the person with the disorder and of others in his or her life.
histrionic personality disorder
strongly desires to be the center of attention, and often seeks to attract attention through personal appearance and seductive behavior.
narcissistic personality disorder
feels grandiosely self-important, with fantasies of beauty, brilliance, and power. The person feels a desperate need for admiration in variety of contexts, and feels envy both toward and from others.
avoidant personality disorder
feels inadequate, inferior, and undesirable and is preoccupied with fears of criticism. The person feels ashamed, and avoids interpersonal contact, risks, and new activities unless he or she is certain of being liked.
dependent personality disorder
feels a need to be taken care of by others and an unrealistic fear of being unable to take care of himself or herself. trouble assuming responsibility and making decisions, preferring to gain approval by making others responsible and seeking others’ advice and reassurance regarding decisions.
obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD)
may not have any true obsessions or compulsions, but may instead accumulate money or worthless objects. The person is perfectionistic, rigid, and stubborn, with a need for control interpersonally and mentally.
is a disorder characterized by positive symptoms, such as delusions and hallucinations, as well as negative symptoms, such as flat affect, disorganized speech, and avolition. is a neurological disorder with a strong genetic basis.
which suggests that the pathway for the neurotransmitter dopamine is hyperactive in people with schizophrenia.
also have a genetic basis,there is increased risk of developing depression when a first-degree family member has it.
has been linked to hypofunctioning in pathways in the brain that involve the neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine. accompany other neurological diseases, traumatic brain injury, due to damage to areas of the brain.
target and try to stimulate these pathways.
is a term for a severe loss of cognitive ability beyond what would be expected from normal aging.
is the most prevalent form of dementia. may be able to recall events from decades earlier . is a cortical disease, meaning that it affects the cortex, the outermost tissue of the brain.
it is a disease that is characterized behaviorally by an inability to form new memories.
hard formations of beta-amyloid protein
clumps of tau protein
is a movement disorder caused by the death of cells that generate dopamine in the basal ganglia and substantia nigra, two subcortical structures in the brain.
they are referring to a person’s feelings and beliefs about other people or events around them
Components of Attitudes
the ABCs, affect (emotion), behavior tendencies, and cognition (thought).
principle of aggregation
an attitude affects a person’s aggregate or average behavior, but not necessarily each isolated act.
discovered that role-playing has a powerful influence on attitudes and behavior.
Cognitive dissonance theory
suggests that individuals will attempt to reduce tension (dissonance) between beliefs (cognitions) that are incompatible.
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