Psychological Disorders

icer215's version from 2016-08-03 01:39


Question Answer
psychological disordersmental disorder or mental illnes
mental illnessis diagnosable based on specific symptoms, and treatable with various types of medication and/or therapy.
psychopathologyrecognizes the role of both of nature (genetic predisposition) and nurture (environmental factors) on mental illness
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental DisordersThe universal authority on the classification and diagnosis of psychological disorders
Anxiety disordersFear of certain objects/situation causing increase in heartbeat and sweating. Phobias, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder
Dissociative disordersExtreme stress causes disturbance in memory, consciousness, identity etc. Dissociative identity disorder
Mood disordersInconsistent mood changes (mood swing) that persist over time from extreme happiness to extreme sadness. Depression, bipolar disorder
Eating disordersExtreme sensitivity from weight and food emotionally, physically, and mentally. Anorexia, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder
Impulse control and addiction disordersDifficult resisting desires/urges, causing harm to themselves and to others. Pyromania (start fires), kleptomania (steal), compulsive gambling, alcohol/drug addiction
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)Urges and thoughts to follow certain routines due to obsession. Needing to wash hands every time a person touches other things
Personality disordersExtreme personality that interfere with normal life (socializing, working, etc.). Antisocial personality disorder
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)Result of traumatic event (sexual assault, death in the family, natural disaster). Traumatic event is difficult to forget causing emotional and mental terror.
Psychotic disordersHallucination and delusional thinking. Schizophrenia
Somatic symptoms disordersExperiencing physical symptoms or pain that is no medical cause can prove. Illness anxiety disorder, body dysmorphic disorder
Tic disordersOne makes sudden, uncontrollable and repeated movement or sound. Tourette’s syndrome

Section 2

Question Answer
somatoform disorderis a psychological disorder characterized primarily by physical symptoms and concerns, which may mimic physical (somatic) disease.
five types of somatoform disorderare discussed in this section:conversion disorder, pain disorder, somatization disorder, body dysmorphic disorder, and hypochondriasis
coversion disorderexperiences a change in sensory or motor function that has no discernible physical or physiological cause, and which seems to be significantly affected by psychological factors.
pain disordersuffers clinically important pain whose onset or severity seems significantly affected by psychological factors.
somatization disorderexperiences a variety of physical symptoms over an extended time period.
body dysmorphic disorderis preoccupied with a slight physical anomaly or imagined defect in appearance, often involving the face, hair, breasts, or genitalia.
hypochondriasishas been preoccupied with fears of having a serious illness for at least six months.
schizophreniais a chronic, incapacitating disorder by which a person is out of touch with reality(psychotic) andsuffers material impairment in soical, occupational, or personal functioning.
paranoid-type schizophreniathe psychosis is in the form of hallucinations and/or delusions, usually relating to a certain theme
hallucinationis a false sensory perception that occurs while a person is conscious. absence of related sensory stimuli, and illusions, which are misperceptions of actual sensory stimuli.
delusionis a fasle belief that is not due to culture, and is not relinquished despite evidence that is false.
disorganized-type schizophreniathe psychosis is in the form of flat or inappropriate affect, disorganized speech, and disorganized behavior.

Section 3

Question Answer
catatonic-type schizophreniathe psychosis in in the form of catatonic behavior. include extremely retarded or excited motor activity and other peculiar behaviors.
retarded motoractivity may manifest as stupor, a complete cessation of voluntary speech or movement, or freezing for an extended time in an uncomfortable or strange position.
excited motoractivity may manifest as purposeless hyperactvity that is not influenced by external stimuli.
perculiar behaviors include negativism (resisting instuctions for no apparent reason), mannerisms (unnecessary movements or flourishes during goal-directed), posturing (assuming bizarre or inappropriate poses) , and grimacing.
undifferentiated-type schizophreniathe basic criteria for schizophrenia are met, but the symptoms do not fit into one of the subtypes described above.
residual-type schizophreniathe acute phase has resolved and the criteria for schizophrenia are no longer met, but the person still appears odd and some symptoms are still present in milder forms.
brief psychotic disorderhas displayed at least one basic psychotic symptom for less than one month.
schizophreniform disorderhas displayed the symptoms of schizophrenia for a period of one to six months, during which the symptoms may or may not have interfered with the person's functioning in life.
schizoaffective disordercombines mood and psychotic symptoms: in this disorder, both the symptoms of schizophrenia and a major depressive, manic, or mixed episode are experienced for at least one month.
mood disorderis more than moodiness; it is a persistent pattern of abnormal mood serious enough to cause significant personal distress and/or significant impairment to social, occupational, or personal functioning.
affectis a person's visible emotion in the moment.

Section 3

Question Answer
five mood disordersmajor depressive disorder, dysthymic disorders, biopolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder, and cyclothymic disorder.
major depressive disorderhas suffered on or more major depressive episodes.
dysthymic disorderis less a intense, chronic form of depression.
bipolar disorderexperience cyclic mood episodes at both extremes or "poles": depression and mania.
bipolar I disorderhas experienced at least one manic or mixed episode.
manic episodefor at least one week, a person has experienced an abnormal euphoric, unrestrained, or irritable mood, with at least three of the following symptoms:grandiose, exaggerated, or delusional self-esteem, high energy with little need for sleep, increased talkativeness and pressured speech, poor judgment.these symptoms are severe enough to cause psychotic features
bipolar I disorderthe manic phases are less extreme. experinced cyclic moods, including at least one major depressive episode and one hypomanic episode, and no manic or mixed episode.
hypomanic episodefor at least four days, a person has experienced an abnormally euphoric or irritable mood, with at least three of the symptoms for a manic episode, but less severe level.
cyclothymic disorderis similar to bipolar disorder but the moods are less extreme. experienced cyclic moods, including many hypomanic episodes, as well as many episodes of depressed mood that are milder than a major depressive episode for at least two years.
Dissociative Disorderthe disruptions in awareness, memory, and identity are extreme and/or frequent, and they cause distress or impair the person’s functioning. can be triggered by severe stress or psychological conflicts, and they usually begin and end suddenly.
Dissociative symptomsof severe memory loss can also be caused by general medicalconditions, such as alcohol, drug, or medication use, or by certain anxiety disorders.
dissociative amnesiahas had at least one episode of suddenly forgetting some important personal information, usually related to severe stress or trauma. The person may wander aimlessly during the episode.
dissociative fuguesuddenly goes on a journey, during which he or she cannot recall personal history prior to the journey. The journey usually lasts only a few hours or days, during which the person may be disoriented, confused, or even violent.journey lasts several months, and involves the assumption of a new identity and occupation.recovery of prior memories but amnesia for the episode.
dissociative identity disorderalternates among two or more distinct personality states (or identities), only one of which interacts with other people at any one time. The identities may vary widely in age, gender, and personality traits, and they may or may not be aware of each other.

Section 4

Question Answer
depersonalization disorderhas a recurring or persistent feeling of being cut off or detached from his or her body or mental processes, as if observing themselves from the outside. The person may also experience a feeling that the external world is is usually triggered by stress.
personality disorderis an enduring, rigid set of personality traits that deviates from cultural norms, impairs functioning, and causes distress either to the person with the disorder or to those in his or her life.
A person is not considered to have a personality disorder if he or she is a child or has a mood, psychotic, developmental, or general medical disorder that could be causing the symptoms.
personality disorderscluster into three categories.
Cluster Aincludes the paranoid, schizoid, and schizotypal personality disorders associated with irrational, withdrawn, cold, or suspicious behaviors.
Cluster Bincludes the antisocial, borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic personality disorders associated with emotional, dramatic, and attention- seeking behaviors, and intense conflict.
Cluster Cincludes the avoidant, dependent, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders, associated with tense, anxious, over- controlled behaviors.
paranoid personality disordermistrusts and misinterprets others’ motives and actions without sufficient cause, suspecting them of deceiving, harming, betraying, or attacking him or her. The person tends to be guarded, tense, and self-sufficient.
schizoid personality disorderis a loner with little interest or involvement in close relationships, even those with family members. The person seems unaffected emotionally by interactions with other people, appearing instead detached or cold.
schizotypal personality disorderhas several traits that cause problems interpersonally, including constricted or inappropriate affect; magical or paranoid thinking; and odd beliefs, speech, behavior, appearance, and perceptions. The person tends to have no confidants other than close relatives. Many cases eventually develop schizophrenia.
antisocial personality disorderhas a history of serious behavior problems beginning as a young teen, including significant aggression against people or animals; deliberate property destruction; lying or theft; and serious rule violation. the person has a history of repeatedly disregarding the rights of others in various ways, through illegal activities, dishonesty, impulsiveness, physical fights, disregard for safety, financial irresponsibility, and lack of remorse.
borderline personality disordersuffers from enduring or recurrent instability in his or her impulse control, mood, and image of self and others. Impulsive and reckless behavior, together with extreme mood swings, reactivity, and anger, can lead to unstable relationships and to damage both of the person with the disorder and of others in his or her life.
histrionic personality disorderstrongly desires to be the center of attention, and often seeks to attract attention through personal appearance and seductive behavior.
narcissistic personality disorderfeels grandiosely self-important, with fantasies of beauty, brilliance, and power. The person feels a desperate need for admiration in variety of contexts, and feels envy both toward and from others.
avoidant personality disorderfeels inadequate, inferior, and undesirable and is preoccupied with fears of criticism. The person feels ashamed, and avoids interpersonal contact, risks, and new activities unless he or she is certain of being liked.
dependent personality disorderfeels a need to be taken care of by others and an unrealistic fear of being unable to take care of himself or herself. trouble assuming responsibility and making decisions, preferring to gain approval by making others responsible and seeking others’ advice and reassurance regarding decisions.
obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD)may not have any true obsessions or compulsions, but may instead accumulate money or worthless objects. The person is perfectionistic, rigid, and stubborn, with a need for control interpersonally and mentally.
schizophreniais a disorder characterized by positive symptoms, such as delusions and hallucinations, as well as negative symptoms, such as flat affect, disorganized speech, and avolition. is a neurological disorder with a strong genetic basis.
dopamine hypothesiswhich suggests that the pathway for the neurotransmitter dopamine is hyperactive in people with schizophrenia.

Section 5

Question Answer
Unipolar and bipolar depressionalso have a genetic basis,there is increased risk of developing depression when a first-degree family member has it.
Depressionhas been linked to hypofunctioning in pathways in the brain that involve the neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine. accompany other neurological diseases, traumatic brain injury, due to damage to areas of the brain.
Anti-depressantstarget and try to stimulate these pathways.
Dementiais a term for a severe loss of cognitive ability beyond what would be expected from normal aging.
Alzheimer’s diseaseis the most prevalent form of dementia. may be able to recall events from decades earlier . is a cortical disease, meaning that it affects the cortex, the outermost tissue of the brain.
anterograde amnesiait is a disease that is characterized behaviorally by an inability to form new memories.
neuritic plaqueshard formations of beta-amyloid protein
neurofibrillary tanglesclumps of tau protein
Parkinson’s diseaseis a movement disorder caused by the death of cells that generate dopamine in the basal ganglia and substantia nigra, two subcortical structures in the brain.
attitudethey are referring to a person’s feelings and beliefs about other people or events around them
Components of Attitudesthe ABCs, affect (emotion), behavior tendencies, and cognition (thought).
principle of aggregationan attitude affects a person’s aggregate or average behavior, but not necessarily each isolated act.
Philip Zimbardodiscovered that role-playing has a powerful influence on attitudes and behavior.
Cognitive dissonance theorysuggests that individuals will attempt to reduce tension (dissonance) between beliefs (cognitions) that are incompatible.