Psych (Personality)

ohsobeezee23's version from 2015-04-21 21:31

user breannurban's psychology terms

Question Answer
PersonalityAn individual's unique pattern of thoughts, feelings and behaviors that persist over time and across situations.
Major Influences on PersonalityGenetics, environmental (experience), sociocultural, psychodynamic, and humanist approaches.
Biological/Genetic InfluenceTemperament and traits influenced by genes.
Environmental InfluenceLearning, parents, peers, situation and chance events influence personality.
Sociocultural InfluenceNorms influence what traits are valued, notion of "self/personality," and shape behaviors.
Psychodynamic InfluenceUnconscious dynamics influence motives, guilt, conflicts and defenses.
Humanist ApproachesPeople can exercise free will to determine who they will be.
Objective TestsStandardized tests; relatively easy to administer and score/analyze results. Familiarity with the test affects responses and they rely entirely on self-report.
Projective TestsUse of ambiguous stimuli; difficult to fake "correct" response and you are able to uncover unconscious aspects of personality. It is difficult to score/analyze responses and there is greater subjectivity in interpretation.
Personality Theories ExplainDevelopment, structure, motivation, psychopathology, psychological health and personality change.
Psychodynamic Theoriesa view that explains personality in terms of conscious and unconscious forces, such as unconscious desires and beliefs.
Sigmund FreudFounder of the approach to psychodynamic theories.
Freud's Psychosexual StagesYou must overcome fixation at every stage; developmentally stalling at a particular stage, which influences adult personality later in life.
Oral StageFirst year; oral gratification and weaning. Has to do with the mouth.
Anal Stage2-3 years; toilet training.
Phallic Stage3-5/6 years; genitals. Develop Oedipus complex and identify with the same sex parent.
Latency Stage5/6 years old through adolescence; sexual interests are repressed; focused on other things.
Genital StageAdolescence to adulthood; genitals. Reawakening of sexual desires.
PreconsciousMaterial that can easily be recalled.
EgoSelf; reality principle.
SuperegoEgo ideal; moral guardian.
IdPleasure principle; unconscious urges and desires.
Motivation of Psychodynamic TheoriesCauses of behavior; why we do what we do.
Psychic DeterminismBelief that there are causes for our behaviors, thoughts, feelings; they do not occur randomly or by chance.
InstinctsLife (sexual) and death (aggressive)
PsychopathologyResult primarily from early, unconscious childhood sexual conflicts that are real or imagined.
PsychoanalysisDream interpretation and free association (talking cure) to get at emotionally troubling unconscious conflicts, memories, wishes urges and work through them to improve one's psychological well being.

Section 2

Question Answer
Carl JungTwo levels of unconsciousness and personality types of an extrovert and introvert.
Personal UnconsciousIndividual's repressed thoughts, forgotten experiences and undeveloped ideas.
Collective UnconsciousThe part of the unconscious that is inherited and common to all members of a species. Experiences we have in the world are the result of these inherited, predispositions to experience the world in particular ways and our actual experiences.
ArchetypesThe structural components of the collective unconscious. Universal thought forms, associated with emotion that create images or visions.
ExtrovertFocuses on external world; very social; energized by social situations and activities.
IntrovertFocuses more on own thoughts and feelings; not very social; energized by solitary pursuits.

Section 3

Question Answer
Alfred AdlerFeelings of inferiority can be natural. They can lead to positive growth or they can lead to superiority complex (believe you are better than others) or inferiority complex (fixation on feelings of personal inferiority that result in emotional/social paralysis).
Karen HorneyNegative coping strategies that help people deal with emotional problems but result in loss of independence and submissive, aggressive and detached personality types (neurotic trends).
EriksonPersonality develops across all stages of life and each stage is associated with its own crisis that must be resolved for continued healthy development in the later stages.

Section 4

Question Answer
Humanistic TheoriesStress the potential for growth and positive change. Focuses on here and now rather than the past. Conscious control, NOT unconscious control.
Abraham MaslowHierarchy of needs. Lower needs have to be met before you can begin to meet higher needs.
Self-ActualizationAchieving the highest human potential. Concerned with other people and societal problems, not just oneself. Highest on pyramid of needs.
Carl RogersAn individual whose self-concept closely resembles his/her inborn potentials is a fully functioning person. Do not love your child conditionally!

Section 5

Question Answer
Trait Theoriesdefining personality through stable and lasting behavior patterns and conscious motivations
TraitsDimensions or characteristics on which people differ in distinctive ways that guide our behavior in various situations.
"Big Five"Proposes that there are five important personality traits that differ among individuals.

Section 6

Question Answer
Cognitve-Social Learning TheoriesOur behavior is a result of the interaction of our thoughts, learning and social environment.
Albert BanduraExpectancies guide our evaluation of a situation. We act according to our own performance standards.
Self-EfficacyWhen we meet our own standards we develop this. It is an attitude that our effort will be successful.
Rotter's Locus of ControlAn expectancy about whether reinforcement, good or bad experiences, success or failure in life are under internal or external control.
Internal ControlOne can control his/her own fate.
External Control One's fate is determine by chance, luck or the behavior of others.
OptimisticAppear to be more careful in their choices and serves as a protective factor.
PessimisticHigher risk taking behavior and negative effects of health.

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