Psych midterm

eshapeesha's version from 2016-02-06 21:28


Question Answer
sleep wake cyclegoverned by an internal 25 hour circadian rhythm, tuned externally to 25 hrs bc sun
circadian and ultradian rhythmssleep wake cycle governed by 25 hr circadian rhythm, tuned externally to 24 hours by the sun, rem periods alternate w non rem periods according to a 90-100 min ultradian rhythm
melatoninsleep onset is triggered by the release of melatonin from the pineal gland, sleep meds often facilitate or inhibit this sleep related neurotransmitter.
rem v nrem sleeprem sleep can be exhausting and last longer as the night profresses, eeg similar to waking state, heightened physiological activity, erection of secual tissue, vivid visual dreams. nrem sleep has multiple stages- transition, point of no return, and deep sleep
rem sleep throughout the nightalternate every 90-100 mins, rem periods get longer as night progresses, can be exhausting
functions of rapdid eye movement, period and sexualstriate muscle tone greatly reduced; rapid, jerky, desynchronous eye movements; erection of sexual tissue; vivid visual dreams.
repair/restoration v energy conservationrepair restore- theory that sleep helps us recover something depleted during wakefulness, energy conservation theory- sleep keeps us from overheating and helps us conserve energy
dreaming in rem v nremrem dreams tend to be more visual and active possibly because of state people are in when they wake up and talk about it
findings about dream contentdreams contain more bad outomes thn good, more aggressive than friendly, kids have more fantastical dreams
activation synthesis v neurocognitive theories of dreamingactivation synthesis theory claims input arising from the pons activates the brain during REM sleep. the cortex takes that haphazard activity plus whatever stimuli strike the sense organs and does its best to synthesize a story to make sense of it. neurocognitive dream theory- our dreams are a conscious expression of the rem sleep stage that is busy storing and processing daily experiences
sleep and agingpeople sleep less as they get older nd the proportion of time in rem sleep decreases. sleep gets lighter and wakefulness gets sleepier. sleep problems often due to illness, pain, breathing problems, frequent urination
sleep paralysisoccurs in rem sleep, wake up but feel like you are being held down, cannot move or yell
effects of sleep deprivationmissing 1 night causes sleepiness but little impairment, missing 2 or more nights causes progressive congitiove and motor impairment, microsleeps begin to intrude on wakefulness, doesnt cause lasting mental illness, rem rebound on resuming sleep.
ingredients of good sleep hygienechronic, constant, moderate exercise, no after dinner exercise, minimal stimulant use, constant sleep/wake up times, minimal noise, darkness, stillness, constant diet.
hypnosisa condition of increased suggestibility that occurs in the context of a special hypnotist- subject relationship
what hynosis can and cant docan- produce relaxation, concentration, changes in behavior, inhibit pain, posthypnotic suggestion, hallucinations. cant- improve balance, inhance memory
effects of hypnosis on memorydoes not really enhance memory, people are just more suggestible
rationalism v empiricismempiricism- all knowledge comes from sense experience, rationalist- reason is the ultimate starting point for all knowledge, human knowledge constists in innate concepts
associationismthe mind is composed of elements (Sensations and ideas) which are organized by means of various associations. these include contiguity (things seen close together), frequency, similarity, contrast,
tabula rasa doctrine w rationaleindividuals are born without built in mental content and therefore all knowledge comes from experiene or perception.
pavlovrussia physiologist. come up w classical/pavlovian conditioning- process by which an organism learns a new association between 2 stimuli, a neutral stimulus and one that already evokes a reflective response (usually bad to replace association of habit trying to break)
esophageal and gastric fistulaeesophageal- communication between the esophagus and some portion of the respiratory tract, may be congenital or acquired as a result of trauma or inflammatory lesions, particularly esophageal foreign bodies. gastric fistula- abnormal passage communicating with the stomach, often applies to an artifically created opening, through the abdomincal wall into the stomach
cs, usconditioned stimulus (bell), response that depends of preceding conditions. unconditioned stimulus (meat)- event that automatically elicits an unconditioned response
ur, crunconditioned response (salivate)- action that the unconditioned stimulus elicits. conditioned response is whatever response the conditioned stimulus begins to elicit as a result of the conditioning procedure.
formation of conditioned reflexstart w unconditional reflex- meat ---> salivation. bell ---> meat ----> salivation. eventually, bell → salivation
classical conditioning and ptsd, bulimia, pseudoinsomnialoud sounds similar to those in war make veternans feel intense fear w all loud sounds, bulimic people stop needing to force themselves to puke when they are full bc it just happens after a while,
little albert study- rationale and reinterpretationused fear and pavlovian conditioning to condition albert to fear fuzzy animals. watson reinterpreted this to apply to child rearing and believed that emotional reactions are trained so emotional training shouldk be conducted to maximize independence and not out of sentimentality. little albert ended up having a mental condition that made him indifferent so the study was bogus.
aversion therapygetting over addiction by using what you were addicted to with something bad
systematic desensitizationgetting over phobias by training people to stay relaxed through a hierarchy of scary situations.
el thorndikeput cats into a puzzle box, from which they could escape by pressing a lever. the cats learned to make whatever response opened the box, esp if the box opened quickly.
law of effectresponses which are followed by a satisfying state of affairs would occur with greater and greater frequency over time
bf skinnerdemonstrated many uses of operant conditioning, made rats press levers and pigeons peck at an illuminated key to recieve food, viewed that behavior is defined by its outcome and not by muscle movement.
operant conditioning extinction occurs if responses stop producing reinforcements
abcs of operant conditioningantecedent stimulus (nature of consequence) , behavior, consequence-
reinforcement v punishmentreinforcement is the process of increasing the future probability of the most recent response, punishment decreases the probability of the response
shapingest a new response by reinforcing successive approximations
schedules of reinforcementrules for the delivery of reinforcement, fixed ratio, fixed interval, variable ratio, variable interval. ratio schedule provides reinforcements depending on the number of responses.
operant extinctionspecial cases of learning, conditioned taste aversions, birdsong learning, social learning
conditioned taste aversionsassociate food with illness so you dont like it
birdsong learningduring the sensitive period (Early stge) of life, birds learn how to make their song by listening with no response and no reinforcement. learns through a trial and error process in which he must recognize for himself whether the song is right or wrong.
social learningimitation, vicarious reinforcement, punishment
ebbinghaus and cvcsuses nonsense syllables to see how long it takes to memorize lists, discovers forgetting curve.
forgetting curve and decayamount remembered decreases as time elapses
nature of iconic memorymemory of visual stimuli in the form of mental pictures, sotred for less time than other memories.
characteristics of working memoryshort term memory, few items, lasts short pd of time, requires sustained attention, vulnerable to distraction, aided by chunking,
characteristics of ltmunknown capacity limits, includes intentional and incidental memory, lasting memories occur only after age 3-4, some memories last a lifetime (permastore), memories are reconstructed, not replayed exactly.
incidental v intentional memoryincidental- things you know bc you’ve picked up on them, intentional- things that you consciously made a note to remember.
explicit v implicit memoryexplicit (declarative)- stating an answer as a product of memory, implicit (procedural)- an experience that influences what you say or do unintentionally in the future.
semantic v episodic memoryboth are declarative (explicit) memory types, semantic- memory of principles and facts, episodic- memory of events in your life.
levels of processing principlememory happens as a result of processing information. the more times you process, the better you’ll remember.
encording specificity principlethe associations you form at the time of learning will be the most effective retrieval cues later.
mnemonic devicesany memory aid that relied on encoding each item in a special way
primacy and recency effectsfirst and last things in a list are the easiest to remember
permastorememories that last a lifetime
process of memory reconstructionduring an original experience, we construct memory. when we try to retrieve that memory, we reconstruct an account based party on surviving memories and partly on our expectations of what must have happened.
false memory effectwhen attempting to recover a lost memory people are vulnerable to their expectation of what the memory will be → false memory
hindsight biasthe tendency to mold our recollection of the past to fit how events later turned out
types of memory interferenceproactive interference- old materials increase forgetting of the new materials. retroactive interference- new materials increase forgetting of old materials.
childhood, retrograde, anterograde amnesiachildhood- cant remember things before 3-4 y/o. retrograde- loss of memory for events that occurred shortly before brain damage. aterograde- inability to stroe new long term memories.
korsakoffs syndromecaused by prefrontal cortex damage, condition caused by a prolonged deficiency of b1, usually as a result of chronic alcoholism. apathy, confusion, amnesia.
types of clusteringserial- clustering in small groups in orer in which they were said, semantic- organize into categories for recall
cued recall enhancementgiven a list it is hard to recall everything on the list, when given cues you can easily determien whether or not something was on the lsit
recognition enhancementsimilar to cued recall, but if given an option of several cues, the person will be able to choose the correct cue.
digit span taskexercises verbal working memory number storage capacity
effects of alzherimers diseasesevere memory loss, confusion, depression, disordered thinking, impaired attention
facilitated communicationallegedly allows communication byt hose who were previously unable to communicte by speech of signs due to mental retardation. its not actually true
experiemnts to test fcwhispered one thing to helper, one to kid and saw that what was whispered to helper is always what was written
clever hansa horse who picked up on the cues given by his handler.
ideomotor effectpsychological phenomenon where a subject makes motions unconciously, subject reacts reflextively to ideas alone without the person conciously deciding to take aciton.

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