Psych Key Terms

carlyjean's version from 2015-10-22 01:20


Question Answer
Biopsychosocial ApproachHow biological, psychological and social factors influence why someone thinks the way they do
Nature vs. NurtureThe debate of whether genes or experience influences our development
PsychologyThe science of behavior and mental processes
HypothesisA testable prediction
TheoryAn educated guess about why something is the way it is
Experimental GroupThe group exposed to treatment
Control GroupThe group not exposed to treatment
Dependent VariableThe variable that changes based on the results from the independent variable
Independent VariableThe manipulated variable
Random AssignmentAssigning participants to groups by chance
Random SampleA sample that fairly represents a population
Statistical SignificanceHow likely it is for something to happen
CorrelationThe relationship between how two variables change together
Illusory CorrelationThinking there is a relationship between two variables when there actually isn't
Hindsight BiasI knew it all along
Placebo EffectResults caused by expectations alone (sugar pills vs Advil)
Operational DefinitionStatement of exact procedures in a study
NeuronA nerve cell
AxonPasses messages to branches of neuron
Myelin SheathFatty tissue around the axon
SynapseGap between axon and next neuron
Frontal LobesRight behind the forehead that controls speaking and judgement
Occipital LobesBack of the head and controls visual fields
Temporal LobesAbove the ears and receives auditory input
Parietal LobesTop of the head and receives sensory input
Corpus CallosumBand of neural fibers that connect the left and right hemispheres
Limbic SystemNeural system that controls emotions and drives
Brain StemOldest part of the brain and starts at top of spinal cord and controls basic survival skills
CerebellumThe little brain that processes sensory input and helps us balance and keep memory
Central Nervous SystemThe brain and the spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous SystemNeurons that connect the CNS to the rest of the body
Autonomic Nervous SystemPart of the PNS that controls glands and muscles of organs
PlasticityThe brain's ability to change after damage
NeurotransmittersChemical messengers that move from neuron to neuron and relay messages
EmotionsA response of the body involving physiological responses, expressive behaviors and conscious experience
James-Lange Theory of EmotionPhysiological response triggers the emotion
Cannon-Bard Theory of EmotionPhysiological and emotional responses happen simultaneously
Two-Factor Theory of EmotionPhysiological response first and then we have to consciously identify the emotion before we feel it
Arousal and Performance (Inverted U) Yerkes-Dodson law that there is a relationship between arousal and performance
Universal EmotionsEmotions that are familiar to everyone
CatharsisEmotional release
Feel-Good Do-Good PhenomenonIf you're in a good mood you're more helpful
HappinessA mental or emotional state of well-being ranging from contentment to intense joy
Relative DeprivationI have it worse than everyone else
Subjective Well-BeingSelf-perceived happiness with life
Adaptation-Level PhenomenonMaking judgements based on past experience
ZygoteConception to 2 weeks where a single cell divides
Embryo2 weeks to 9 weeks where the organism develops
Fetus9 weeks to birth where organs and limbs develop
TeratogensAgents that can harm the embryo or the fetus and cause development issues
Rooting ReflexThe reflex that a baby will turn its head toward the stimulus
AccomodationAdapting our current understandings
AssimilationInterpreting new experiences in terms of already known schemas
AttachmentAn emotional tie to another person
Sensorimotor StagePiaget's theory where babies know the world through their senses for the first 2 years of life
Preoperational StagePiaget's theory where kids learns to use language and happens between 2 and 7 years
Concrete Operational StagePiaget's theory where kids develop cognitive abilities and can think logically
Formal Operational StagePiaget's theory where people start to think logically about abstract things
Object PermanenceWhen peek a boo stops working and kids know an object is there even when they can't see it or feel it
SchemaA concept that interprets information
ConservationThe principle that things keep the same mass, volume, or number even if the form changes
EgocentricismPiaget's theory that kids have a hard time taking other people's points of view
MotivationSomething we want that directs our behavior
Drive-Reduction TheoryPhysiological need that makes us want to change it (body needs food, so we get hungry and we eat to reduce the drive)
HomeostasisA constant internal state
Hierarchy of NeedsMaslow's idea that in order to move up the pyramid, you have to complete the one below it
HungerFeeling of discomfort due to lack of food
Set PointThe point where our weight thermostat is set
Basal Metabolic RateThe body's resting rate of energy use
Sexual Response CycleThe four stages of sexual response which are excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution
Refractory PeriodA resting period after orgasm when another orgasm cannot be achieved
Sexual DisorderAny disorder involving sexual functions
Sexual OrientationWho you are sexually attracted to (men, women, both, none, etc)
Achievement MotivationWanting to accomplish something significant
Social LeadershipGroup-oriented leadership
Task LeadershipGoal-oriented leadership