Psych Intro

tisisemi's version from 2016-10-03 17:32

Section 1

Question Answer
Psychology DefScientific Study of behaviour and mental processes
Goal of PsycDescription - what is happening, Explanation - why, Prediction - when again?, Control - how to change
Modern PerspectivesPsyco-dynamic, Behavioural, Humanistic, Cognitive, Sociocultural, Biopshyc, Evolutionary
Psychodynamic Perspective - describeFreud's theory: Unconscious mind controls conscious behaviour. Motivation behind behaviour
Behavioural PerspectiveSkinner: Classical Conditioning, operant conditioning, reinforcement
Humanistic PerspMaslow & Rogers: Free will and potential growth - be the best you can
Sociocultural PerspRelationship between social behaviour and culture
Evolutionary PerspBehaviour seen as having adaptive/survival value - natural selection

Section 2

Question Answer
Scientific Method 5 Steps1. Percieve Question 2. Form Hypothesis 3. Test Hypothesis 4. Draw Conclusion 5. Report Results
Descriptive Scientific methodsNaturalistic, Laboratory, Case Study (1 person), Survey
Scientific correlation ( not causation: smoking)Relationship between variables. Pos. corr and Neg corr
Positive correlationBoth variables increase or decrease (more study, higher mark)
Negative correlationOne variable increase, matching decrease (more absence, lower grade)
Experiment: Cause Variable manipulated by experimenter: Independant variable
Experiment: EffectVariable that measures behaviour of participant: Dependant Variable
Group Experiment -2Control group (no treatment), Experimental grp (treatment)
Eliminating Bias -2Single blind study (participants unaware which group), Double blind (Researcher and participant dont know)

Section 3

Question Answer
Biological PerspectiveNetwork of specialized cells that carry info to and from parts of body.
Glial CellSeparate, support and insulate neurons from each other
NeuronNerve cells that make up the nervous system.
Nervous SystemCentral (Spinal cord and Brain), Peripheral (Autonomic and Somatic)
4 Parts of Neuron the dendrites, the cell body, the axon and the axon terminal
NeurotransmitterChemical that allow message to be transmitted across synapse to the dendrite of a receiver neuron
SynapseFluid filled gap between axon and dendrite of another neuron
Receptor site of Receiving neuronSpecial shape only allows certain molecule of n-t. to fit into dendrite
Central Nervous System CNSBrain and Spinal cord (mostly interneurons). Controls life functions
Peripheral Nervous System PNSCommunicates from CNS to body parts. Somatic and Autonomic
PNS SomaticVoluntary movements of skeletal muscles
PNS AutosomaticSelf-regulated actions (organs+glands) Sympathetic -stress and parasympathetic -normal

Section 4

Question Answer
Hind Brain - 3 partsMedulla, Reticular Formation, Cerebellum
Medulla functionsVital life functions such as breathing, heartbeat, swallowing
Reticular Formation - responsible for?Selective attention, general body arousal
Cerebellum controls?Posture, balance, muscle tone, fine motor movements, muscle coordination

Section 5

Question Answer
Under Cortex, 5 structuresLimbic System, Thalamus, Hypothalamus, Hippocampus, Amygdala
Limbic System functionEmotion, motivation, learning
Thalamus functionRelay station for incoming sensory info (touch, vision, heat, taste)
HypoThalamus functionsMaintain homeostasis: regulating body temp. hunger, sleep, sex, hormones
Hippocampus functionsLong term memories formation using Acetylcholine
AmygdalaFirst and quick response. Fear response and memory of fear

Section 6

Question Answer
Cortex FunctionsMental activities. Left and right hemispheres connected by Corpus Callosum 4 Lobes
Occipital lobe functionProcess visual info from eyes and makes sense of info
Parietal lobe functionSomatosensory cortex, process skin and internal body receptors: touch, temp., body position
Temporal lobe functionAuditory: hearing and understanding language
Frontal lobe functionHigher mental func: plan, memory, decision, personality, emotional control. Left FL for speech production. Motor Cortex for voluntary muscels.
Association areasBroca: produce speech. Wernicke's area: Understand words, speak sense.
Left Brain:Language, Logic Critical thinking, Numbers, Reasoning
Right brain:Recognizing faces, Expressing emotions, Music, Reading emotions, Color, Images, Intuition, Creativity
Endocrine glands:Pituitary = Master, Adrenal = emergency hormones, Gonads = Reproduction, Thyroid = metabolism, Pancreas = blood sugar

Section 7

Question Answer
Learning defRelatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience
4 Kinds of learning1. Classical condition, 2. Operant Cond. 3. Cognitive 4. Observational
Classical ConditioningAssociation of neutral stimulus with unconditioned stimulus to produce unconditioned response
UCRUnconditioned response
CSConditioned Stimulus NS and UCS close together
CRConditioned Response - learned reflex in response to conditioned stimulus
Stimulus generalizationrespond to a similar stimulus with conditioned response
Stimulus discriminationlearned ability to respond differently to similar stimulus
ExtinctionDisappearance / weakening
Spontaneous recoveryReappearance of learned response after extinction

Section 8

Question Answer
Operant ConditioningVoluntary response is strengthened or weakened, depending on consequences - to produce a wanted outcome
ReinforcementProcess by which stimulus increases probability that the response will occur again
Positive ReinforcementA reward / pleasurable stimulus
Negative ReinforcementRemoval / escape / avoidance of unpleasant stimuli (nagging)
PunishmentApply unpleasant stimulus or remove pleasant stimulus
Consequence of punishmentLies, avoidance, fear, anxiety
Schedule of ReinforcementContinuous (every correct response), Partial (sometimes)
Partial ReinforcementInterval = fixed/var time, Ratio = fixed(7coffees, 1 free)/variable(lottery)
Shaping: Small steps to goal, reinforced till goal reached

Section 9

Question Answer
Cognitive LearningThinking about consequences of your response
Latent learningLearning remains hidden till needed
Cognitive mapmental representation of the environment

Section 10

Question Answer
Observational LearningLearning new behavior by watching other
4 typesattention = 1. see/hear 2. memory = remember 3. imitation = copy 4. motivation = reaction