Psych 51 - Midterm 3 - Social Psychology

annire's version from 2015-12-14 07:51

Section 1

Question Answer
ways for fundamental processes of attitude changepersuasion, and cognitive dissonance
cognitive dissonance definitionindividual's cognitions, beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors are at odds
cognitive dissonance motivates. PEOPLE LIKE CONSISTENCY> individuals to resolve the inconsistency between their discrepant cognitions.
ex: if a person is forced to improvise a speech supporting an opposing POVwill move in the dir of the view expressed in teh speech (more so than listening, ). mental rehearsal? thinking of new arguments?
the bigger the monetary reward,the less the change in private opinion
money - thought that the more money you get, the more likely you will move towards that opinion..

Section 2

Question Answer
when prophesy fails. believes with whole heart. shown undeniable evidence that belief is wrong. what will happen? will emerge unshaken and more convinced of the truth of his beliefs than ever before. STRONGER
it is very difficult to change someone's belief with persuasion.
stanford undergrads - boring activity, $20 or $1 to tell the next personthe task is not boring
$1 more likely to find the tasks enjoyable, and participate in similar experiment. than control or $20
what caused this change in attitude?convincing effect of mental rehearsal and thinking of new arguments supporting opposing view.
rate of discussion/persuasivenessequal
conclusion: if a person is forced to say something contrary to private opinion, tendency to change opinion to agree with what he has said or donethe LARGER the pressure to elicit the overt behavior, the WEAKER the tendency
being forced to lie for nothing --> i don't like it -->get rid of tension by thinking, i'm not lying at all! it was fun!!
with money or force, we have a REASON to lie

Section 3

Question Answer
so what are 3 ways to reduce cognitive dissonance?change cognition/behavior; justify by changing cognition or adding new cognitions; ignore/deny any info that conflicts with existing beliefs (confirmation bias!)
can't change behavior, so change belief
find justification it wasn't, deserved it (unless..., everyone else is...)
ex: can't not cheat, you already did it -->add conditions (but she... but he..)
applications: iraqWMD why we have war. there are no WMD. **rational for war changes. we already said we wanted war, but now that reason is wrong. get a new reason
***whether or not they find WMD doesn't matter because the rationale for war has changed
hazing. more grueling, more highly the group is valued
hurt innocentdemonize the innocent
drugs != drinking and driving

Section 4

Question Answer
create dissonance to change behaviorYOU. tell me why you should wear condoms. then ask to write down the times when they had failed to do so
in hypocrisy condition -->bought condoms, MORE condoms. on avg. than control. and also follow-up
vicarious dissonance. observing others whom one LIKES or RESPECTS --> engage in attitude discrepant behavior --> more likely to change attitude
aronson: dissonance is the result of conflict betweenbehavior and self-image
*also, change in behavior/cognition/attitudes depends on whichever is the easiest to change

Section 5

Question Answer
motivating voter turnout by INVOKING THE SELF
emphasized the act of "voting" or being a "voter"**self-identitybehavior vs self identity
more likely to vote when reminded of self identity
**appealing to self image. voting - competent, morally appropriate. they want to be like thatbe the kind of person that votes --> build and maintain a positive self image. **claim a desired and socially value identity
so more like to vote when voting is represented as an**expression of SELF. fundamental character. than just a behavior
**people's desire to shape their own idenitity can be harnessed to motivate behavior. ..