Psych 51 - Midterm 3 - Love and Human Sexuality

annire's version from 2015-12-14 06:26

Section 1

Question Answer
Sternberg, 3 dimensions to a love relationshipintimacy (emotional), passion (motivational), decision/commitment (cognitive)
what do you have to control for when researching love?length of relationship (controlclose friend)
results of looking at brain in loveactivation areas spread out, not that many ares of activation!
the course of passion as a function of duration of relationshipas body moves away from homeostatic "ideal," pulls you back down *tolerance, once drug wears off, negative component continues on. *withdrawal. addiction
the first love?you build up tolerance. takes more to get back up. and body will drop more.
over timeopponent processes get stronger and faster. more love. more breakup
but don't take it too much for granted.. because you can think of different peoplelike a "different" drug

Section 2

Question Answer
what is an emotion?* (James theory)result of bodily sensations that occur in response to emotive stimuli
process: sensory stimulus to stimulus perceived --> emotional expression --> emotional experience
bridge experiment. high bridge vs. low bridge. more men called female interviewer from high bridge.
initmacyoxytocin is released in association with trust. **pair bonding
the course of intimacy as a function of duration of relationshiplevel of intimacy will drop over time, but a successful relationship will power through. failed will just give up

Section 3

Question Answer
sex differences; meta-analytical study. evolutionary psych perspectivesome sex. diff may come from what we learn in society
evolutionary frameworkhuman mating is strategic; context dependent; short term vs long term. men and women face different mating circumstances
hypothesis 1: short-term mating is less important for women than mencostly for women, men can reduce parenting investment and still produce offspring
hypothesis 1 resultrated degree to which seeking long term: equal. short-term: higher for males. lower than control for women
the college student askingno women wanted the sex. more men wanted the sex (increasingly from date)

Section 4

Question Answer
sexual desiremen display more sexual interest than women (more sexual fantasies, sex drive, visual stimuli, spend money)
men prefer more frequent sexmale wants more frequent in marriage; gay men > lesbians; women celibacy more
masturbatingmen. earlier and more often
meta analysis on sexual attitudes and magnitude of gender when updated. effect size changed over time, and varied.
results of meta analysissomething about changes in society that influence magnitude of sex differences
greater gender equality -->smaller sex differences
overall. sexual attitudes can be influenced by multiple things

Section 5

Question Answer
cognitive social learning theorylearning takes place by observing/analyzing/modeling others' behaviors; **the media; increased exposure to media --> more sexually permissive behaviors and attitudes. **western media images
social structural theorypsychological gender differences because of division of labor by gender and gender disparity in power
gender similaritiesmen and women are very similar for most, but not all, psychological variables. gender differences are SO SMALL. aka close to zero for cognitive abilities, psychological well being, and self-esteem
OVERALL. in support of evolutionary psychology, results form individual + large data --> men report slightly more sexual exp/permissive attitudes than women for most variables. **gender similarities hypothesis, most gender diff in sexual attitudes and behaviors were SMALL
support for cognitive social learning theoryyear of publication moderated magnitude of effect sizes, some gender diff increasing over time, others decreasing
support for social structural theory**nations and ethnic groups with GREATER GENDER EQUALITY --> smaller gender differences (for some sexual behaviors)

Section 6

Question Answer
agression more closely linked to sexuality for men than women
fantasieswomen's - familiar partner, affection, men's - strangers. specific sex acts
women emphasize committed relationshipsas a context for sexuality more than men
women show greater"sexual plasticity" *more altered by cultural, social and situational factors; amount of sex, sexual orientation
why study?/is understudiedimportant part of human experience, not well understood
limitationswhite middle class US; heterosexuals; male reference point?

Section 7

Question Answer
peplau; diff mating strategies for men and women lesbians - less permissive attitudes toward casual sex than gay/hetero men
how should we interpret the finding that women appear less interested in sex?focus on sexual intercourse, rather than other forms of physical intimacy; sexual desire vs arousability; women - hormonal/situational cues ***FEMALE'S SEXUAL BEHAVIOR IS CONTEXTUAL
also thinking about the way we are asking the question
hooking up. hypothesis; seeming increase in sex, maybe due to cultural changes?cars, movie theaters (depictions of uncommited sex/erotic sex), a way to learn about it /see it, etc. sense of appropriateness changed. also BIRTH CONTROL
marriage and pubertypuberty earlier and earlier, marriage later and later...huge unprecedented time gap. physically able to reproduce, but not ready to settle down

Section 8

Question Answer
hook up;more women have (-), more women want more out of the hookup
reproductive motiveinfluence sexual patterns - motivation and regret following uncommited sex; what do people want from it? reproductive motive; casual sex among gay men though?
hookup takes into accountsocial context, cross-cultural and biological centrality of the pair bond?
most people are engaging in hookups, but reactions differ