Psych 51 - Midterm 3 - Love and Human Sexuality
annire's 2015-12-14 06:26
Sternberg, 3 dimensions to a love relationship intimacy (emotional), passion (motivational), decision/commitment (cognitive)
what do you have to control for when researching love? length of relationship (control close friend)
results of looking at brain in love activation areas spread out, not that many ares of activation!
the course of passion as a function of duration of relationship as body moves away from homeostatic "ideal," pulls you back down *tolerance, once drug wears off, negative component continues on. *withdrawal. addiction
the first love? you build up tolerance. takes more to get back up. and body will drop more.
over time opponent processes get stronger and faster. more love. more breakup
but don't take it too much for granted.. because you can think of different people like a "different" drug
what is an emotion?* (James theory) result of bodily sensations that occur in response to emotive stimuli
process: sensory stimulus to stimulus perceived --> emotional expression --> emotional experience
bridge experiment. high bridge vs. low bridge. more men called female interviewer from high bridge.
initmacy oxytocin is released in association with trust. **pair bonding
the course of intimacy as a function of duration of relationship level of intimacy will drop over time, but a successful relationship will power through. failed will just give up
sex differences; meta-analytical study. evolutionary psych perspective some sex. diff may come from what we learn in society
evolutionary framework human mating is strategic; context dependent; short term vs long term. men and women face different mating circumstances
hypothesis 1: short-term mating is less important for women than men costly for women, men can reduce parenting investment and still produce offspring
hypothesis 1 result rated degree to which seeking long term: equal. short-term: higher for males. lower than control for women
the college student asking no women wanted the sex. more men wanted the sex (increasingly from date)
sexual desire men display more sexual interest than women (more sexual fantasies, sex drive, visual stimuli, spend money)
men prefer more frequent sex male wants more frequent in marriage; gay men > lesbians; women celibacy more
masturbating men. earlier and more often
meta analysis on sexual attitudes and magnitude of gender when updated. effect size changed over time, and varied.
results of meta analysis something about changes in society that influence magnitude of sex differences
greater gender equality --> smaller sex differences
overall. sexual attitudes can be influenced by multiple things
cognitive social learning theory learning takes place by observing/analyzing/modeling others' behaviors; **the media; increased exposure to media --> more sexually permissive behaviors and attitudes. **western media images
social structural theory psychological gender differences because of division of labor by gender and gender disparity in power
gender similarities men and women are very similar for most, but not all, psychological variables. gender differences are SO SMALL. aka close to zero for cognitive abilities, psychological well being, and self-esteem
OVERALL. in support of evolutionary psychology, results form individual + large data --> men report slightly more sexual exp/permissive attitudes than women for most variables. **gender similarities hypothesis, most gender diff in sexual attitudes and behaviors were SMALL
support for cognitive social learning theory year of publication moderated magnitude of effect sizes, some gender diff increasing over time, others decreasing
support for social structural theory **nations and ethnic groups with GREATER GENDER EQUALITY --> smaller gender differences (for some sexual behaviors)
agression more closely linked to sexuality for men than women
fantasies women's - familiar partner, affection, men's - strangers. specific sex acts
women emphasize committed relationships as a context for sexuality more than men
women show greater "sexual plasticity" *more altered by cultural, social and situational factors; amount of sex, sexual orientation
why study?/is understudied important part of human experience, not well understood
limitations white middle class US; heterosexuals; male reference point?
peplau; diff mating strategies for men and women lesbians - less permissive attitudes toward casual sex than gay/hetero men
how should we interpret the finding that women appear less interested in sex? focus on sexual intercourse, rather than other forms of physical intimacy; sexual desire vs arousability; women - hormonal/situational cues ***FEMALE'S SEXUAL BEHAVIOR IS CONTEXTUAL
also thinking about the way we are asking the question
hooking up. hypothesis; seeming increase in sex, maybe due to cultural changes? cars, movie theaters (depictions of uncommited sex/erotic sex), a way to learn about it /see it, etc. sense of appropriateness changed. also BIRTH CONTROL
marriage and puberty puberty earlier and earlier, marriage later and later...huge unprecedented time gap. physically able to reproduce, but not ready to settle down
hook up; more women have (-), more women want more out of the hookup
reproductive motive influence sexual patterns - motivation and regret following uncommited sex; what do people want from it? reproductive motive; casual sex among gay men though?
hookup takes into account social context, cross-cultural and biological centrality of the pair bond?
most people are engaging in hookups, but reactions differ
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