Psych 51 - Midterm 3 - Emotions

annire's version from 2015-12-14 07:00

Section 1

Question Answer
basic emotions, universal, culture?.
Darwin, human expression of emotion is adaptive, increased survival.
similarity in emotinoal expression across speciesproduct of evolution? adaptive value? increase surivval of indiv and species?
ex:who to avoid? who to trust/form bond with?, infants and mothers (before infant can comunicate)
social psychologywe, humans, only survive socially. ex: ew this food! --> more info from others
Darwin believed that if all people showed same emotions, than expressions must be INNATE, NOT LEARNED

Section 2

Question Answer
eckmanCONVINCED DARWIN WAS WRONG. **expression and gesture were socially LEARNED. and culturally VARIABLE
eckman - how?find cultures isolated from other cultures --> see if they express similar expressions
main questionare expressions universal, or are they, like language, SPECIFIC TO EACH CULTURE?
methodologyaccuracy at recognizing american facial expresions
overall, saw no direct evidence that emotions were universal
**also when we observebehaviors may change. they may act differently!!

Section 3

Question Answer
eckman and friesan. resultsboth adults and CHILDREN (aka not learned)- pretty accurately identifying emotional expressions in photographs. --> support that particular facial behaviors are universally associated with particular emotions
also, expression (not recognition). when told a story. video tapedjudged correctly by westerners.
evidence from both the recognizing and the expressing?contradicts the view that all facial behavior associated with emotion is culture-specific; **it is understandable to members of another culture
fear and surprise confused becausein their culture, fearful events are almost always surprising
but. how come we found this, when so many smart people thought the opposite? ..
birdwhistell people smiled when they were unhappy. **emotional expression must be the product of learning, different in each culture.
display rulesany social situation modifies the DEGREE to which we EXPRESS our emotions through face. **cultural specific display rules

Section 4

Question Answer
japanese and north americans - private vs public displayno diff in private. public *authority figure present --> masked negative expression with semblance of smile
hansen and hansen; if facial expression - warn others of danger --> should be able to pick out some expressions more easily than othersex: angry > smiling.
as the crowd gets bigger, it gets harder to find teh happy face.
overall; people can accurately interpret emotional expression across cultures. but there is an in group advantagethe degree of in group advantage is related to contact between cultures
intensitycultures that encourage collectivistic oreintations perceive less intensity in anger/fear/sadness --> not to disrupt group harmony
decoding rules**culturally specific norms about whether or not to acknowledge emotions expressed in others
emotion experienced --> expresion based on specific affect program -->display rules --> expressive display --> perception based on specific affect program --> decoding rules --> emotion perceived ****