both adults and CHILDREN (aka not learned)- pretty accurately identifying emotional expressions in photographs. --> support that particular facial behaviors are universally associated with particular emotions
also, expression (not recognition). when told a story. video taped
judged correctly by westerners.
evidence from both the recognizing and the expressing?
contradicts the view that all facial behavior associated with emotion is culture-specific; **it is understandable to members of another culture
fear and surprise confused because
in their culture, fearful events are almost always surprising
but. how come we found this, when so many smart people thought the opposite?
people smiled when they were unhappy. **emotional expression must be the product of learning, different in each culture.
any social situation modifies the DEGREE to which we EXPRESS our emotions through face. **cultural specific display rules