Psych 51 - Midterm 2 - Working Memory and Long Term Memory

annire's version from 2015-11-05 08:32

Section 1

Question Answer
Clive Wearing had damage to hishippocampus and frontal lobe which lead to AMNESIA
he could only rememberthe moment. he had no past to remember. no future
amnesiaremove info is intact. difficulty in recalling memories and CAN'T LEARN NEW THINGS
he still is intelligent, and has his old memory
Henry M had severe epilepsy and a lot of seizures, so a neurosurgeontook out parts of his limbic system.
what happened to HM after surgery?seizures reduced, overall no physiologic or behavioral changes, except very grave, recent memory loss. "like waking from a dream" loss ability to do seemingly simple things
HM estimates himself to be younger. doesn't know who the president is.

Section 2

Question Answer
William James hypothesized that there were 2 different memory systemsshort term (temporary) and long term (secondary)
short term memory is immediate info. aware of right now
long term memory stores info we've experienced. and later retrieve back into consciousness
proof for this hypothesis is in the 2 patients. short term intact. long term now
Modal Model of Memory: sensory inputs go into a sensory register. and then ATTENTION is required for short term storage. and REHEARSAL (repeat thinking) is needed for long term storage. this is the place of issue for these patients
ex: mirror drawing task. got better over a couple days of training
shot term memory (general)capacity limited. can only pay attention to small fractions at one time. fades quickly.
long term memory (general)don't know what the limit is. no one has ever been able to NOT remember anymore
explicit processingconscious
implicit processing of infoindirect, outside of awareness processing of info

Section 3

Question Answer
working memory (short term memory)intact for HM. emphasize where we manipulate info.
4 parts of working memoeryoperates over a few seconds, temporary storage, *MANIPULATES INFO, focuses attention
Sian Beilock ("choking under pressure")feel well prepared, something happens and interferes => underperform
beilock study. split undergrads into high and low working memory based off 3 standardized memory tests (pile a lot of info, distract with math)then they were asked to perform modular arithmetic. under low and high pressure
high pressureyou get more money, AND for friends AND videotaping
so while higher WM indiv do better under low pressure situations, they aremore susceptible to pressure. they are most likely to fail under pressure. are the ones who in the highest absence of pressure, have the highest capacity for success!!*
maybe, the strategy for high WM and LW are differentlow, takes short cuts. high WM usually doesn't. but under pressure, takes short cuts and kind of matches low WM. so it doesn't affect low WM cause they'll be taking short cuts no matter what
OVERALL. pressure causesreduction of WM capacity because of THOUGHTS that were taking up WM. (life questions, irrelevant to exam. not just DISTRACTING. SAPPING)
did the same procedure, but this time either sat and wrote for 10 min about feelings, or sat quietlywriting seemed to take away the mechanism that wa using anxiety to interfere. it was a way for the WM to get rid of these thoughts. WM dump.
as a result, writing allows a person to hone th eWM left to work out problems.
is it the feelings or the writing?when just did unrelated writing, it was like the control. it's the NATURE of the writing.
in the control condition. higher anxiety lead to lower performance.
when wrote about thoughts. relationship between anxiety and perforance? no relationship. ***
overall, when performing, anxiety => less working memory capacity
emotions preventclear thinking. they interrupt working memory