Psych 51 - Midterm 2 - Sleeping and Dreaming

annire's version from 2015-11-03 06:32

Section 1

Question Answer
Circadian Rhythmsif you watch someone's behavior, it may be predictable
What is most observable? sleep-wake
lightan external cue that synchronizes many circadian rhythms
some do not require light, which suggestsexistence of an internal/biological clock
travelingno matter where you go, follow these cycles
other animalsland animals - fluctuations according to daily cycles
other physiological processesalso show daily rhythms (temperature, hair growth, hormones, etc.)
cortisolkeeps your active
most mammals arenocturnal (good night vision, good hearing and smell)
diurnalactive during the daytime (good color vision, poor smell)
biological clockbiological mechanism that keeps track of time

Section 2

Question Answer
hamster on a wheel, activity:mostly active at night
if exposed to a constant environmentwithout light cues, each master will show a daily pattern of activity (12 hours active, 12 hours sleep)
free runningcircadian pattern of activity that is not anchored by any external cue (like sunset)
SCNin the hypothalamus, tends to control a lot of physiological circadian rhythms
where does SCN get info from?eyes, activated by light/dark and controls other physiological rhythms
if SCN lesionedhamster unable to show a free-running circadian rhythm in constant dim light
free running shiftbecause their free-run cycle takes a little more than 24 hours, they wake up just a little bit later each day
for people in a cavesimilarly, develop a "free-run," slightly longer than 24 hours
jet lagloss of sleep and uncomfortable disorganization of your body's physiology because of a sudden shift in time zone
time to recover from jet lagseveral days of exposure to the light-dark cycle in the new location
which direction do people suffer from jet lag moreeast
baseball teams more likely to win games when they travel west, than when they travel east

Section 3

Question Answer
much of what our brain is doingis outside of our awareness (processes in the mind)
mind-body problemquestion of which particular pattern of brain activity underlies a particular conscious experience
deafferentation theorysleep was the result of higher brain areas being deprived of sensory input (FALSE)
sleep is a behavior...or an absence there of?, seek quiet environment, low level of motor output, but characteristic eye movements
sleep is an altered state of consciousness...sensory input weakened, some dreaming, recall little of mental activity that occurred
dream is an internally generated storywe wake up and have no idea what happened
Freud thought(WISH FULFILLMENT) coming from an unconscious id, which we inhibit. aggressive, sexual. our conscious functions according to the rules of society (or bad things will happen to us). so at night, our id can express itself directly
freud's ideas were incorrect becauseany dream could mean anything, there's no objective way to tell which of the many interpretations is correct

Section 4

Question Answer
watchingnot very interesting.. not much to see
other ways to measuremuscle tone (EMG), eye movements, blood flow to the genitals, EEG...
EEGbrain wave activity (fluctuating potentials)
beta activitywakefulness, desynchronized: high frequencies with low amplitude
alpha activitysynchrony: high amplitude, low frequency
human sleep stages may be distinguished...on the basis of EEG characteristics
high amplitude meanslarge areas firing together, but not much processing
REM EEG characteristicsresembles EEG of waking (desynchronized, beta activity)
sleep is not an absence of brain activity... it's highly orchestrated and active. which means there is some purpose to it!!
slow wave sleep EEGstages 1-4 of EEG increase in amplitude, and decrease in frequency
slow wave sleep (general)light, even respiration. muscle control is present (can toss and turn), "Dreaming" is cold and rational, logical. difficult to rouse from stage 4
REM sleep (general)enhanced respiration and blood pressure, rapid eye movements, loss of muscle tone/paralysis, vivd emotional dreams
cycle of sleephuman sleep: alternating cycle of REM and SWS every 90 min. indicate NOT random
why do we sleep so much?homeostatic restoration, thermoregulation, tissue repair, immune functioning, memory processing
lesion parts of brain related to REM paralysisno longer paralyzed, people who don't have paralysis flail arms and legs, can be dangerous to nearby people. *paralysis is adaptive
"good" sleepshallower towards the end=> morning hours easier to wake up/wake up more frequently
"deep" in beginningdifficulty to wake up
as you get olderless time in stage 4, more time no REM => not feeling as restored
night terrorscream, then sleep
nightmareemotionally scary
circadian rhythm...sleep is a part of circadian rhythm
when things are regular...there exists a purpose
we know there's a motivation for lseeping...because we spend so much tim doing it!

Section 5

Question Answer
breedlove's 4 reasonsniche adaptation, energy conservation, memory consolidation, and body restoration
niche adaptationpart of ecological niche, forces animal to conform to the ecological niche for which it is well adapted. unpleasant feelings of sleepiness => evolved to enforce a certain circadian rhythm. (stay quiet and safe! hide vulnerabilities)
energy conservationfood is not always plentiful, we use less energy while sleeping (conserve calories). can't find food at night anyway, might as well sleep (related to niche adaptation)
smaller animals...sleep more than larger animals. small have a larger SA relative to total mass => greater heat loss.
ex: shrewssmallest mammals and sleep more than any other mammals!
body restorationmore energy we utilized, more we sleep. sleep restores the body after waking activity takes a toll on it. we know this because of sleep deprivation studies

Section 6

Question Answer
sleep debtincreased feelings of sleepiness after losing sleep and the need to sleep longer the next night. which means there exists something valuable about sleeo!!
when we don't get sleep..we try to make up for it!!! (bt you can't make up for all that's lost)
after general sleep deprivation....not much effect, except with boring, repetitive tests requiring a lot of vigilance
randy gardner's sleep experiemntdidn't completely fall apart! just lost some focus, slurred words. also recovered after a few days!
randy gardner sleep wavesgot a LOT of stages 1 and 2 at first, then went back to normal after a few days
complete loss of sleep...may be fatal... sleep deprivation seemed to disable the immune system
FFIfatal familial insomnia, in midlife- eliminates sleep. less and less time sleeping... (succumb to bacterial infections)
some people need very little sleep..and remain healthy. which implies they are more efficient at restoring their body/consolidating memory/maintaining immune responses
BUT no one ever has been documented to have...absolutely NO sleep. (except those with FFI)
memory consolidationbrain "consolidates"/"burns in" memories of things learned during waking hours. *consolidate memories in a wide variety of tasks
REM sleep for memorymay aid in learning, but not absolutely necessary

Section 7

Question Answer
during REM, word associationis better
Matt Walker UC Berkeley investigatedthe impact of sleep deprivation on declarative memory encoding of both emotional and nonemotional material
subjects sleep deprived for 36 hours OR allowed to sleep normally prior to an incidental memory encoding session of positive, negative, and neutral words
2 nights of normal sleep, follow up for an unexpected recognition tasksleep deprived condition were 40% worse at memory retention relative to normal sleep, PRIOR to encoding
between different emotionsmagnitude of effect differed
memory has three partsencoded, stored and recalled
encodedchanged from sensory state, and can be stored
storednot aware of what it is
sleep facilitatesour ability to encode new memories
no sleep for motor skill learning20% decrease in activity, if that person has slept
when they were able to sleep, the motor skillsincreased. so sleep is better than time passing

Section 8

Question Answer
when dreaming...we are aware of mental content completely unrelated to our environment
relies a lot on visual
dreams to have what kind of content?emotional
freud thought that dreams were wish fulfillment. best way to tell us about what the unconscious was thinking
nathanial kleitmandid a lot for sleep research
eugene aservinskyfollowed eye movements with electrodes (so didn't have to look at him)
he noticed that his son's eyes...started to move quickly but was still asleep!
keltiman and aservinsky thought maybe the eye movement...was people watching their dreams
when awoken during REM sleepwere confused as to what was happening
REM dreamsthere's a story, what we all accept as being " a dream"
nonREM sleep dreamssome content, not really a storyline, a thought or image
to test dreaminginterrogated/woke them up and asked "what's happening??"
deprived them of dreaming, especially during REMhad to wake them up more and more often/tried to get into REM more and more often, and then when spent more time in REM recovering afterwards
"REM rebound effect"slept more in REM when deprived of it, so there must be a necessary function to REM sleep, because there is a motivation to get a sufficient amount. TRYING TO GET IT BACK
REM during lifemore early, less later

Section 9

Question Answer
Activation Synthesis Model of Dreamingalternative model to Freud's
activationduring REM sleep, the brain stem generates activity, which activates the visual cortex, and it's random because not actually processing outside info as it usually does
synthesis4 brain areas interpreting sensory info
forebrain (synthesis)trying to interpret the random signals as best it can, because that's what it does all day
memory (synthesis)not activated, so you don't remember your dreams well
different areas of the brain during sleepcontrol different components of sleep (and different components within each type of sleep)