Psych 51 - Midterm 2 - Rosenthal, Teachers' Expectancies
annire's 2015-11-06 01:10
challenging the idea that intelligence is fixed
clever hans the horse could tap the right answer. BUT found out he needed visual contact with questioner.
simpsons episode. Lisa was subconsciously cuing Maggie. Maggie seemed really smart! (like Hans)
rosenthal - rats run a maze. one group was told they were working with a strain that had been bred for "high intelligence" other group "dullness". were actually from the same strain
results from rats running maze. the "bred for intelligence" group did a lot better!
discussion about rats running maze it was not that the rats believed they were more intelligent. it was the students!
"pygmalion effect" higher expectations lead to increase in performance
demand characteristics (importance of double-blind studies and ESPECIALLY. not telling the hypothesis) subjects provide characteristics they think are demanded by experimenter. (experimenter may be signaling about the desired outcome!)
study with TOGA and grades. random 20% of students were named to the teacher of potential to show "unusual intellectual gains" during the year. results: those labeled "bloomers" had a higher gain in IQ. ONLY FOR THE LOWER GRADES. (1, 2)
why only in the younger grades? children more malleable, have less established reputations (older more fixed in terms of self conception) , are more influenced by teachers, lower grade teachers differ from upper
discussion: teachers's beliefs and expectations were associated with actual improvement
what are some actions the teachers did? more smiles, eye contact and favorable reactions
overall: the attention the AMOUNT of attention, as well as the QUALITY of attention
also those who receive the attention say they enjoy school more, and work harder to improve, etc.
findings show that teachers' expectations influence interactions
(1) teacher expects a specific behavior and achievement from certain students, then (2) because of the different expectations, teacher behaves differently towards various students
(3) treatment tells students what behavior and achievements teachers expects from them, then (4) if treatment is consistent over time, AND student does not resist or change it in some way, it will shape his/her achievement and behavior.
high expectation students will be lead to achieve at high levels, achievement of low expectation students will decline
finally, with time, students' achievement and behavior will conform more and more closely to that originally expected of them**
in the courtroom, guilty verdicts can be increased by instructions to jury by judges who believe the defendant is guilty
boardroom. organizational effectiveness can by increased by raising leaders expectations
depression can be reduced by increasing expectations of caregivers of elderly
so how to improve education/performance? everything is relative to other students. is it the specialness or the perceptions of it existing?
Carol Dweck, Stanford. what happens during junior high time that is so critical? followed through 7th and 8th grade
asked questions to see their thoughts on if intelligence is fixed or incremental. learning goals (i work to learn new things!), if you work hard you will be better!.
asked multiple items so you could get at ones opinions, not just yes and now .
looked at responses to failure helpless attributions, or positive strategies.
more incremental theory -you can do something about it, leads to positive learning goals
relationship between belief and strategies ?
took the groups 1 standard deviation from the mean (+/- incremental) incremental or entity. followed their math scores.
results for entity scores flat, decrease.
incremental results increase in math score.
if you do fancy stuff with correlation, you can figure out causation!
there was a relationship between learning goals and positive effort beliefs
overall, students who thought their intelligence was malleable (could be developed) affirmed learning goals more strongly, more likely to believe working hard was necessary and effective in achievement . when faced with setbacks, made fewer helpless attributions. invest more time! change strategy!
as a result, students who endorse a incremental theory outperform those who held an entity theory
incremental had more positive motivational beliefs, which lead to increasing grades
8, 25 min periods to serve as interventions. message: change the brain by forming new connections. students are in charge of this process. malleable intelligence. (muscles get stronger. babies get smarter!)
control group would also learn about brain structure and study skill
scores for general workshop content should be the same yup!
items that tested incremental theory, intervention group should do better yup yup
teacher was blind to who was in which group. experimental group saw a higher increase in motivation and/or erformace!
overall: children's beliefs affect their achievement.
Dweck: praise their process and effort in order foster growth. make the more engaged. they will do better as problems get harder
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