Psych 51 - Midterm 2 - Depression

annire's version from 2015-11-05 00:40


Question Answer
styron describes depression as the feeling that things will NOT get better
a major depressive episode includesloss of interest in pleasurable activities, disturbance of appetite/sleep/energy/concentration. feelings of worthlessness. lasts for MONTHS

BF Skinner video (operant condition chamber)

Question Answer
influencepavlov (classical conditioning), Watson (behaviorist, little albert)
Skinner wanted to look into _____ morebehaviorism
chamberif pigeon pushes disk enough times, will be delivered food.
operant conditioningif action is followed by the delivery of a reinforcer, compulsor to repeat the initial action is higher
chamber resultspigeon would peck on disk in anticipation of the reward.
recording devicerate of pecking.
statsWOW. standard for the future
influence of operant conditioningwith a trigger => associated action => can be reinforced over time.
3 types of reinforced ratiosfixed interval, fixed ratio and variable
fixed intervalafter a certain time, behavior is rewarded.
fixed ratioafter a certain number of responses => reward
variablediffering time and number => reward
key foundation of behaviorismdescribed the way subjects normally respond to stimuli
operant condition theoryradical behaviorism
"behaviorism"behavior is predetermined. does not come from free will
overall Skinner's workstarting point for several pivotal studies on human behavior. changed the way psychologists viewed behavior
behaviorismfoundation for modern psychoanalysis. underlying motivators. motivators for a person's action which may be out of his/her control
explain day to day behaviorgold star - reinforce good behavior. self esteem boosted. lead to repeated occurrence
gamblingslot machines. get coins! encouraged to keep playing. addictive
change vs. persistencebehavior out of one's free will??

Section 2

Question Answer
negative "reinforcement"is removing punishment
reinforcementincrease behavior
Seligman, learned helplessnessoperant conditioning model.
learned helplessness caused bylearning that responding is INDEPENDENT of reinforcement. so he/she stops responding
this model suggests that depression is caused by the belief thataction is futile
dogs put into 3 groupsescape group, no-escape, and no-harness control
escapecan move head to hit panel so there's no shock
no escapeno matter what they did, could get no shock or shock (determined by the escape group.) both got same number of shocks
24 hrs later, shuttle box testjust had to jump to the other side to not be shocked. also, a light indicated when the shock was coming so technically can learn to anticipate, and avoid
it took the no escape groupabout double the time to escape from the shuttle box
also, in terms of failing75% of the no escape group didn't move to the other side
so overall, it's not about how much shock you get, butthat they learn that their behavior has no consequences. so in the new situation, doesn't behave at all
How to treat this? they've learned their behavior doesn't matterthey need to reinforce their behavior, and show that their behavior has consequences! but since they're not behaving at ALL. how do you reinforce nothingness?. first about IF you can get them to behave
how to make the behavegive them something they want/pleasurable. like food. or watch and learn. or physically move the dogs

Section 3

Question Answer
Repeated the above study with students and noise and buttons and a leverhad similar but less dramatic findings. took longer to find the lever
both dogs and humans who experience uncontrollable events will come to expect thatresponding is futile, and will not influence the outcome of events. don't try anything to stop bad thing from occurring
overall considerable parallels between behaviors that define learned helplessness and the major symptoms of depressiongood model. behavior looks the same
so to treat depressionwe need the patient to believe that his/her responses produce gratification. and s/he is an EFFECTIVE human being. what they do MATTERS
doesn't have to be bad thingsANY type of learning that our behavior doesn't have consequences leads to depression
for example (Good)rewards that come independent of one's behavior. why do i have all this? what did i do?
for child rearingwatch out for too much rewarding for their self esteem. it teaches the, rewards and punishments are independent of behavior. need to give both positive and negative consequences. your behavior makes a difference. less likely to develop learned helplessness in the future
thus do goodget rewarded. do bad. get punished

Section 4

Question Answer
to get them to start respondingwork with small behaviors. show them to MOVE. show CAUSE and EFFECT
can we immunize against depression? If so, how?make sure people learn their behavior has consequences
dogs, took escape and no escapeif they had prior exposure to inescapable shocks, they don't get better. if they had some escape training, even in a different environment. they got better.
overall early experience of learned behaviormakes a difference against becoming helpless.
if early on, we learn that we areeffective human beings. later on we are less likely to LEARN HELPLESSNESS. so at some point in my life if I believe working hard makes a difference. but then lose control. i'm less like to develop learned helplessness