Psych 51 - Midterm 2 - Conditioned Learning

annire's version from 2015-11-04 07:00

Section 1

Question Answer
Little Albert is an example of classical conditioning. and if conditioning can lead to a fear/phobia
John Watsonbehaviorism, the role of the environment. believed we could determine everything we wanted to, simply by understanding their environment and learning and how their behavior has changed because of that
behavioristsidea that environment and responses alone, will entirely shape someone
learninga relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience
associative learninglinking two events that occur close together in time
classical conditioninga type of learning where we learn to associate two stimuli and anticipate events
pavlovphysiology, experimental investigation.
pavlov's dogsbody changed in response to association

Section 2

Question Answer
unconditioned stimulusa stimulus that naturally triggers a response (Ex: food)
unconditioned responsea naturally occurring response to the US (ex: salivation)
neutral stimulusa stimulus that has not been paired with the US and elicits no response (ex: bell)
conditioned stimulusa previously neutral stimulus (NS) that is paired with the US and as a result, triggers a CR (ex: bell)
conditioned responsea learned response to a previously neutral stimulus (NS), but now a conditioned stimulus (CS) (Ex: salivation)
before conditioning, NS leads to no response
before: US leads to UR
during conditioning:neutral + US (ex: bell + food) leads to UR (salivates)
after:CS => Cr (bell to salivates)
aquisitioninitial learning of NS US relationship. paired more often => stronger association
classical conditioning pairs what together... to cause whatpairs NS and US to produce CR without US
if we can find a way to "learn" anxiety disorderswe can understand how to unlearn
extinctiondiminished CR when an US no longer follows the CS
spontaneous recovery of CRreappearance of a weakened CR after a pause. this suggests supression rather than extinction

Section 3

Question Answer
higher order conditioning (2nd order)procedure where CS in 1 experience is paired with a different NS to create a second CS.
generalizationonce a response has been conditioned, tendency to respond in a similar way to a stimuli similar to the CS (ex: bell like sounds)
discriminationrecognize CS is different, don't respond as much (US) (Ex: infants and mom)
pavlov's legacy: classical conditioning is one way all specieslearn to adapt to their environment
learning can be studied...objectively
it provides a ____ for psychological sciencescientific model
applications (drug use)tendency to associate people/environment, crave drugs when around that (CS: contexts, CR: cravings)
drug environmentwas a NS initially
so rehab is an environment unrelated to drug when put back, could still get the cravings back. (not extinguishing behavior in the right location)
immune system responds to...classical conditioning. (ex: associate taste with immune response, so only taste (CS)can trigger immune response)
lupus NSsugar water
lupus CStasting the sugar water
lupus USthe drugs
lupus URsuppression of immune system
lupus CRsuppression of immune system
made it so that CS => CRor, sugar water (and lower dose of drug) lead to immune suppression

Section 4

Question Answer
in addition to classical conditioning, little albert tested if conditioning could be generalized to similar things
little albert also looked into (time)how long would fear last?
USloud noise
made it so that CS (animals) would lead to CR(startled).
"freshen up"dumb idea... they did the US again?
were the conditions the same?no... they often threw the object in albert's face. so US was going in their face, and UR was startled. and CS was mask?
conclusion from little albertprobably that many of the phobias in psychopathology are true conditioned emotional reactions either of the direct or transferred type
overall, the study showed that phobias..are developed. but little evidence that this is HOW people develop them, more that this CAN happen.
fear conditioning (brain part)amygdala
made the NS + US into fear
how would we rid little albert of this fear? we would need to present... present the CS (US?) (white furry) without startling (UR) until it goes away. can even ADD, associate white furry with good things