Psych 1 quiz

eshapeesha's version from 2016-01-25 22:04


Question Answer
monoismphysical and mental are one, no separate brain and mind
idealismall is thought (no such thing as the material world)
dualism brain is the hardware while thought is from the soul. the physical and mental are different aspects of reality.
interactionismmind and matter are separate but effect one another
psychophysical paralellismmind and body work in tandem with eachother.
what are some cerebrovascular accidentsthrombotic or embolic stroke, ruptured aneuryisms, hemorrhagic stroke
neurotheologylink brain function to spirituality
free willeveryrthing we do is up to us and our power of thought
determinismevents occur due to cause and effect and stuff, humans not in charge
inductive reasoningyou have something you want to prove right
deductive reasoningyou have a question that you answer w sci method
burden of proof science has to prove everything it theorizes
falsiability of hypothesisinherently can be proven wrong
replicability of findingsfindings must be replicable
devaluation of anecdotal evidencepersonal stories
experimenter bias tendency of experimenter to report according to desired outcome
demand characteristicscues given by the experimenter showing the participant the outcomes the test is supposed to have
to increase objectivityblinds on observers and participants, placebos
naturalistic observationsobserving something in a natural environment
case histories detailed description of a particular person in relation to the study
correlational studies investigators look at correlation without controlling them
correlation vs causationcorrelation determined by observation, causation determined by manipulation of a variable,
experimentmanipulates at least one variable and measures at least one other variable
experimental conditioncondition being tested
control conditioncondition that the condition being tested is compared to
descriptive statisticsmathematical summaries of results
inferential statisticsstatement about a large population based on an inference generalized from a small population
electroencephalographymeasuring and amplifying electrical changes on the scalp that reflect brain activity
hindbrain and functionspons and medulla do protective reflexes, infant reflexes, orienting reflexes, cardiovascular, respiratory, and digestive reflexes. the old cerebellum is for balance, the new cerebellum is for rapid automatic movements, timing of movement
midbrain and functionsreticular formation for general arousal, sleep and wake cycles, and pain perception. the superior colliculi is for visual targetting. saccades-voluntary eye movement, and inferior colliculi are for auditory targetting
forebrain and functionbasal forebrain has hypothalmus with the pituitary gland for bone growth, autonomic nervous system, immune system, hunger/thirst/body temp, sexual orientation, reward and punishment. the thalamus is also in the basal forebrain and is the sensory relay station. forebrain also has the old cortex w the imbic system, with complex reaction patterns, the basal ganglia w background and postural movements, smooth persuit eye movements, regulation of foreground and background thinking.
autonomi nervous system with branchesans- section of the nervous system that controls the functioning of the internal organs such as the heart, sympathetic branch- increases proessing for fight or flight situations, parasympathetic branch- promotes restful and relazing activities.
limbic syste mand functionold cortex- complex reaction patterns for fighting ,fucking, food, fleeing
lobes of neocortexfrontal lobe for strategic thinking, social cognition, short term memory, language/music, voluntary movement. parietal lobe- complex visual/ touch perception (right for body sense and left for math). temporal lobe- hearing and language decoding, long term memory, face/object identification, occipital lobe- for visual pattern recognition.
parkinsons diseasedisease involving basal ganglia, characteristics inc resting tremor, rigidity, slowed movements, confusion.
orpus callosumset of axons that connect the left and right hemispheres of the cerebral cortex.
neglect syndromepatients neglect one side of a paper/drawing bc right side of parietal lobe is damaged
major endocrine glands and functionsthyroid which controls metabolic rate, anterior pituitary which controls other glands, posterior petuitary which controls blood pressure/urine volume, and hypothalamus which controls the pituitary gland.
synapsespecialized junction between one neuron and another
action potentialan excitation that travels along an axon at constant strength, no matter how far it must travel , allows full strength message over long distances
resting potentialan electrical polarization across the membrane of an axon, when an axon is not stimulated its membrane has a resting potential
parts of a neuron cellsoma- cell body w nucleus of the cell, dendrites- widely branching structures that receive info from othr neuron cells, axon- single long, thin, straight fiber with branches near its tip, transmits info to other cells.
axon terminalswhen an action potential reaches the terminal bouton it releases a neurotransmitter
neurotransmitter reuptakeafter a neurotransmitter excites a receptor, it may be reabsorbed by the axon that released it, allows for the recycling of neurotransmitters and regulates the level of neurotransmitter present in the synapse, antidepressant drugs block this reuptake
glial cells and functionsnervous system cells which support the neurons in many ways, insulating neurons, synchronizing activity mong neighboring neurons, removing waste products
neurotransmitters w examples neurotransmitter is a chemical that activates receptors on other neurons, serotonin mdifies many types of motivated/emotional behavior, dopamine is important for movement, memory, cognition
examples of neurotransmittershistamine which increases arousal and altertness, endorphins which decrease pain and increase pleasure
classes of drugs and their brain effectsstimulants increase energy, altertness, and activity for example cocaine. depressants decrease arousal for example alcohol. narcotics produce drowsiness and insensitivity to pain. opiates such as heroine, meth, and codeine. hallucinogens induce sensory distortions
reticular formation w functionmidbrain, controls general arousal, sleep/wake cycles, and pain perception
orienting responsepons and medulla (hindbrain) function
pathological reflexesfunctions of the pons and medulla, babinski reflex when foot is poked, patellar tendon reflex in the knee, rooting and moro reflexes- babies latch onto finger and mouth
phrenologyconcept that the brain is the organ of the mind, certain brain areas have localized specific functions or modules
saccades v smooth tracking eye movementssaccades are jerky eye movements controlled by midbrain suoerior colloculi, smooth eye movements controlled by basal ganglia of forebrain
binding problem how separate brain areas combine forces to produce a unified perception of a single object
language areas of brainfrontal and temporal lobes, brocas and wernicke's areas- primary auditory, visual, and motor cortexes, arcuate fasciculus, angular gyrus.
convolutions in neocortex and reasoncalled gyri, the folds increase surface area considerably without taking up too much more volume
effects of prefrontal damage and prefrontal lobotomyreduce behavioral sponteneity, iq same, concrete verbalization, sequence of behavior fucked up, loss of strategic thinking
effects of split brain preparationwhen shown an imagine on patient's left visual field, they are unable to vocally name what they have seen
nonfluent and fluent ephasisbrocas ephasis (nonfluent) loss of the ability to produce spoken language. wernicke's aphasis- patients can speak with nromal grammar and sound fine, but the language content is incorrect.
hemispheric lateralizationthe fact that certain functions are located on either the right or left side of the brain, many popular lteralizations are often distributed cross both sides
psychophysicsworld of the spirit vs world of things, detection if anything is there, recognition of what things are, scaling is how much there is, discrimination (Are these things different)
limenabsolute limen- the weakest stimulus that can be detected reliably
foveathe central area of the human retina, adapted for highly detailed vision
blind spotretinal area where the optic nerve exits. no room for receptors bc exitting axons take up all the space
trichromatic theorystates that our receptors respond to 3 primary colors , color vision depends on the response rates of 3 types of cones
opponent process theoryperceive color in terms of paired opposites
afterimagesexperiences of one color after the removal of another
retinex theorywe percieve color when the cerebral cortex xompares various retijnal patterns
frequencythe number of cycles a wave goes through p/ sec. perception of frequency is pitch
amplitudeintensity of sound waves, perception is loudness
conduction v nerve deafnessconduction deafness-when bones connected to the eardrum fil to trasmit sound waves properly to the cochlea. can still hear own voice. nerve deafness- results from damage to the cochlea, the hair cells, or the auditory nerve
frequency theoryat low frequencies a sound wave through the fluid of the cochlea vibrates all the hair cells which produce action potentials in synchrony w sound waves
volley principleat high frequencies each sound wave excites at least a few hair cells and volleys (groups) of them respond to each vibration by producing action potential
place theorythe hgihest frequency sounds vibrate hair cells near the sturrip end, lower frequency sounds vibrate hair cells at points farther along the membrane
methods of sound localizationtiming, intensity, distance, frequency
vestibular systemcontrols vestibular sense, detects tilt of head, acceleration of head, and orientation of head w respect to gravity, composed of 3 semicircle canals, oriented in 3 diretions, 2 otolith organs
gate theory of painpain messages must pass through a gate, presumably in the spinal cord, that can block messages to the brain
neurotransmitters involved in painall pains release the neurotransmitter glutamate, intense pain also releases neurotransmitter substance p
endorphinsother neurons release endorphins, which are neurotransmitters that inhibit the release of substance p and thereby weaken pain sensations
phantom limbcontinuing sensations, inc pain, in a limb long after it has been amputated, generally people who learn to use an artificial limb lose their phantoms
olfactionsense of smell
phermoneschemicals that are released into the environemnt
menstrual synchronyyoung women who are in frequent contact synch periods
signal detection theorystudy of people's tendency to make hits, correct rejections, misses, false alarms
subliminal perceptionstimuli sometimes influence our beavior even when presened so faintly or briefly that we dont consciously percieve
gestalt approachthe ability to percieve something in more than one way is the basis of gestalt psych. focus on perception of overall pattern
perceptual constanciesvision, movement, depth
constancies in visionvisual constantcy is our tendency to percieve objects as keeping their shape, size, and color, despite certain distortions in the light pattern reaching our retinas
induced movementwhen we incorrectly percive an object as mocing against a stationary background
stroboscopic movementan illusion of movement created by rapid succession of stationary movement
retinal disparitydifference in apparent position of an object as seen by the left and right retinas
ocular convergencedegree to which eyes turn in to focus on a close object
binocular cuescues that depend on bth eyes
moocular cuesanable someone to judge distance and depth with just one eye or when both eyes see the same image . inc object size, linear perspective, detail interposition, texture gradient , shadows, accommodaiton, and motion parallax
motion parallax L difference in speed of movement of images across retina as you travel anomalous motion and explanationillusions that look squirmy when really they are staying still.
phi effectillusion of ight moving back and forth between 2 locations

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