PSYC 4,5,6

pazana's version from 2018-02-27 16:53

Section 1

Question Answer
X Chromosomrefound in both men and women
Y Chromosomefound only in males
testosteronestimulates growth of male sex characteristics during puberty
estrogensex hormones contribute to female sex characteristics
menarchefirst menstrual period
spermachefirst ejaculation
genderroles & characteristics that culture expects from those defined as male & female
gender rolea set of roles,activities,expectation & behaviors assigned to males&females by society
gender identityone's innermost concept of self (what they call themselves)
gender expressionrefers too ways in which people externally communicate their gender identity to others
transgenderanyone whose identity or behavior falls outside of stereotypical gender norms
factors that contribute to sexual orientationsize of certain cell cluster in hypothalamus,prenatal hormone exposure,having multiple older biological brothers(men)
primary sex characterisrticsbody structures (ovaries,testes & external 'making sexual reproduction possible'
secondary sex characteristics nonreproductive sexual traits; female breasts,hips,male voice quality & body hair
androgynydisplaying both traditional masculine & feminine psyc characteristics
social learning theorylearn social behavior by observing & imitating & by being rewarded or punished
relational aggressionact or regression(physical or verbal) intended to harm a person's relationship

Section 2

Question Answer
sensationdata coming in
perceptionhow we make sense of the data
sensory adaptationrepresents reduction in sensitivity in response to constant stimulation
perpectual setmental predisposition to perceive one thing & not another
effects on perpectual setshow how experience helps us construct perception
rodsretinal receptor cells that are sensitive to faint light
consclustered near center of retina,detected fine detail and color
top-down procesinguse of preexisting knowledge to identity the whole picture, deriving the various components
bottom-up processinginfo processing in which an individual components are put together to form a complete meaningful pattern
controlling painpain is where body meets mind
built-in controlsendorphins and disctraction
virtuality realitydistraction helps a burn victim feel cell pain
hypnosissocial interaction in which one person suggests to another that certain thoughts will spontaneously occur
Proprioceptionhas not been proven ti reduce pain
Gestaltorganized whole,emphasized our tendency to integrate pieces of info into meaningful wholes
embodided cognitioninfluence of bodily sensations,gestures,&other states on cognitive preference & judgements
examples of sensory interactionsmell,texture,taste= flavor ; vision+hearing interact at a concert

Section 3

Question Answer
learningprocess of acquiring through experience,new & relatively enduring info or behaviors
associate learninglearning that certain events occur together
cognitive learningacquisition of mental info whether observing events,by watching others through language
Pavlovaccidentally discovered classical condition
NSNeutral conditioning,stimulus that hasn't been paired w/US & elicits no resposnse
URUnconditioned Response,naturally occuring response to US
USUnconditioned Stimulus, naturally triggers a response
CSConditional Stimulus, previously neutral stimulus
CRConditioned response a learned response to a previous NR but now CS
Acquisitionplace where link between NS & US is learned
Extitionweakening of a conditioned response when an unconditioned stimulus doesn't follow a CS
Spontaneous Recoveryreappearance after a pause of extinguished conditioned response
generalizationonce a response has been conditioned the tendency to respond in a similar to the cs
discriminationlearned by ability to distinguish between a CS & Other similar stimuli that doesn't signal US

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