PSYC 352 Weeks 7-13 Vocabulary

blueghost's version from 2016-04-13 00:50

Section 1

Question Answer
acculturationthe process of indiv change and adaption as a result of continuous contact with a new, distinct culture
biomedical modelmodel of health that views disease as resulting for a specific, identifiable cause such as a pathogen, a genetic or developmental abnormality, or physical insult
biopsychosocial modelmodel of health that views disease as resulting from biological, psychological, and social factors
diseasea malfunctioning or maladaptation of biologic and psychophysiologic processes in the indiv
holistic healtha perspective on health that considers the physical, social, environmental, and sometimes spiritual needs of the indiv
health disparitiesdifferences in health outcomes be groups such as between males and females, African Americas and European Americans, and people of higher and lower socioeconomic status (SES)
homeostasis maintaining steady, stable functioning in our bodies when there are changes in the environment
illnesspersonal, interpersonal, and cultural reactions to disease or discomfort
immigrant paradoxdespite many challenges of adapting and adjusting to a new country, immigrants tend to show better physical health compared to non-immigrants, and, with further assimilation, further negative health outcomes
infant mortality the number of infant deaths (one year of age or younger) per 1000 live births
life expectancyaverage number of years a person is expected to live from birth
pathogenan infectious agent such as a virus or bacteria
subjective well-beinga person's perceptions and self-judgments of his/her health and well-being that includes feelings of happiness and life satisfaction

Section 2

Question Answer
affectfeelings or subjective experience
appraisalprocess by which people evaluate events, situations, or occurrences that lead to their having emotions
basic emotionssmall set of emotions, or family of emotions, that are considered to be universal to all humans, biologically based and genetically coded, and evolutionarily based; come into world with programs for these emotions; social and cultural learning influence how they are used in life
cultural display rulesculturally prescribed rules that govern how universal emotions can be expressed; center on the appropriateness of displaying emotion, depending on social circumstances; learned in early lives; dictate how universal emotional expressions should be modified to social situation; rules are automatic by adulthood
decoding rulesrules that govern the interpretation and perception of emotions; learned and culturally based rules that shape how people of each culture view and interpret emotional expressions of others
emotionstransient, neurophysiological reactions to events that have consequences for welfare and require immediate behavioral response; include feelings, physiological reactions, expressive behaviours, behavioral intentions, and cognitive changes
emotion antecedentsthe events/situations that elicit or trigger an emotion
dialectical thinkingthe tendency to accept what seems to be contradictions in thoughts or beliefs
emotion response system coherencethe idea that the various response components of an emotion are related to each other in coordinated fashion that prepares individuals to do something vis-a-vis the emotional arousal
emotional complexitythe idea that positive and negative emotions can co-occur and be experienced simultaneously
hyper-cognition relatively greater amounts and forms of knowledge, awareness, and thought about something that goes beyond the usual; coined by Levy to refer to cultures that create many words to differentiate many different emotional states
hypo-cognitionrelatively fewer amounts and forms of knowledge, awareness, and thought about something compared to the usual; term coined by Levy to refer to cultures that lack words to differentiate emotional states
in-group advantageability of individuals from a certain culture to recognize emotions of others of the same culture relatively better than of those from a different culture
self-conscious emotionsemotions that focus on the self; important in studies of culture b/c we believe that humans universally have a unique knowledge of self that is different from other animals, thus creating these emotions
socially engaging emotionsemotions that occur as a result of themes derived from social interdependence and relationships with others
socially disengaging emotionsemotions that occur as a result of themes grounded in independence and autonomy of the self, and its separateness from others
subjective experience of emotionan individual's inner feelings or experiences of an emotion
universality studiesseries of studies conducted by Ekman and Friesen and by Izard that demonstrated the pan cultural universality of facial expressions of emotions

Section 3

Question Answer
channelsspecific sensory modalities by which signals are sent and messages are retrieved
code frame switchingprocess by which bilinguals switch between one cultural meaning system and another when switching languages
decodingprocess by which a person receives signals from an encoder and translates these into meaningful messages
emblemsnonverbal gestures that carry meaning, like a phrase or sentence
encodingprocess by which people select, consciously or unconsciously, a particular modality and method by which to create and send a message to someone else
facethe public appearance or image of a person
foreign language effecttemporary decline in the thinking ability of people who are using a foreign language in which they are less proficient than their native tongue
foreign language processing difficultiesproblems associated with learning foreign language, such as taking more time to respond and experiencing cognitive difficulties while processing info
gesturesmovements of the body, usually the hands, that are generally reflective of thought/feeling
hapticsthe use of touch in interpersonal interactions
high-context culturescultures that promote communication in which many messages are conveyed indirectly in context rather than directly in verbal language
honorific speechspeech styles in certain languages that denote status differences among interactants
intercultural communicationexchange of knowledge, ideas, thoughts, concepts, and emotions among people of different cultural background
intracultural communicationcommunication that occurs among people of the same cultural background
lexiconthe words contained in a language; vocabulary
low-context culturescultures that promote direct communication in which messages are conveyed primarily and directly in verbal languages and the effects of context are minimized
messagethe meanings that encoders intend to convey and decoders interpret
mindfulnessa strategy to improve intercultural communication that allows people to be conscious of their own habits, mental scripts, and cultural expectations concerning communication
morphemessmallest and most basic units of meaning in a modern language
nonverbal behavioursall the behaviors (other than words) that occur during communication, including facial expressions; movements and gestures of hands, arms, and legs; posture; vocal characteristics; interpersonal space; touching behaviours; gaze and visual attention
paralinguistic cuesaspects of the voice that convey info such as pitch, tone, intonation, speech rate and use of silence
phonemesthe smallest and most basic unit of sound in a language
phonologythe system of rules governing how words should should in a given language
pragmaticsthe system of rules governing how language is used and understood in given social contexts
proxemicsuse of space in interpersonal relationships
Sapir-Whorf hypothesisthe proposition that speakers of different languages think differently, and that they do so because of the differences in their languages; also called linguistic relativity
self-other referentswords used in a language to refer to self and others
sematicswhat words mean
signalsspecific words and behaviors that are sent during communication
speech illustratorsnonverbal behaviours used to illustrate/highlight speech
syntax and grammarsystem of rules governing word forms and how words should be strung together to form meaningful utterances
uncertainty reductionone of the major goals of initial intercultural encounters-- to reduce the level of uncertainty and anxiety that one feels when attempting to decoder intercultural messages

Section 4

Question Answer
collective controltype of control in which one attempts to control the environment as a member of a group, and the group serves as the agent of control
direct controltype of control in which the self acts as an agent, and the individuals feel themselves to be more self-efficacious when their agency is made explicit, leading to greater feelings of autonomy and efficacy; may be the preferred model of behavior in cultural contexts that promote independence/autonomy
factor analysis (exploratory) statistical technique that allows researchers to group items on a questionnaire; idea that groups of items are answered in similar ways because they are assessing the same underlying psych construct; researches can interpret the findings and make inferences about the underlying traits being measured
identityour perceived roles in life, aggregate role and life experiences, narrative, values, and motives
indigenous personalitiesconceptualizations of personality developed in a particular culture that are specific and relevant only to that culture
indirect controltype of control in which one's agency is hidden or downplayed; people pretend as if they are not acting as an agent event though they are doing so in reality
locus of controlpeople's attributions of control over their behaviours and relationships as internal or external to themselves; internal means seeing behaviour/relationships with others as dependent on own behaviour; external means seeing these as contingent on forces outside themselves and beyond their control
national characterperception that each culture has model personality type, and that most persons in that culture share aspects of it
personalitya set of relatively enduring behavioral and cognitive characteristics, traits, or predispositions that people take with them to different situations, contexts, and interactions with others, and that contribute to differences among individuals
proxy controlcontrol by someone else for the benefit of oneself; form of control that can be used when personal control is not available or appropriate; third party intervention
traita characteristic/quality distinguishing a person; refers to consistent pattern of behaviour that a person would usually display in relevant circumstances

Section 5

Question Answer
cultural relativism viewpoint that suggests that psychological disorders can only be understood in the cultural framework within which they occur
culture-bound syndromespsychological disorders observed only in certain sociocultural milieus
over-pathologizing misinterpreting culturally sanctioned behaviour as expression of pathological sypmtoms
psychopathologypsychological disorders that encompass behavioral, cognitive, and emotional aspects of functioning
under-pathologizingattributing pathological symptoms to normative cultural differences

Section 6

Question Answer
cognitive behavioral therapyCBT; interventions that emphasize the development of strategies for teaching cognitive skills; underlying these types of therapy is an assumption that by changing our thinking we can change our behaviours and vise versa
indigenous healinghelping beliefs and practices that originate within a given culture or society for treating the inhabitants of the given group
mindfulness (in treatment context)Buddhist principle emphasizing close attention to the present moment, being aware of one's senses, breathing, and thoughts without judgment or evaluations; effective in reducing tension, anxiety, and stress and has been incorporated successfully in CBTs
psychotherapy method of healing that emphasizes an explicit focus on the self

Section 7