PSYC 352 Weeks 7-13 Vocabulary Cont.

blueghost's version from 2016-04-13 01:14


Question Answer
attributionsinferences people make about the causes of events and their own/others' behaviors
better than average effecttendency for individuals to underestimate the commonality of desirable traits and to overestimate their uniqueness
collective identityform of ID that refers to our recognition that we belong to social categories, such as occupation, religion, or culture
correspondence biasalso known as fundamental attribution error; a tendency to explain the behaviours of others using internal attributions but to explain one's own behaviour using external attributions
cultural identityrefers to individuals' psychological membership to a distinct culture
cultural reaffirmation effectamplified endorsement of home cultural values by bicultural individuals
dispositional attributionsattributions about people's internal characteristics, traits, or personality
ethnic identityindividuals' psychological membership in a distinct ethnic group
external attributionsattributions that locate the cause of behaviour outside a person, such as other people, nature, acts of God; also known as situational dispositions
fundamental attribution errora tendency to explain the behaviours of others using internal attributions but to explain one's own behaviour using external attributions; correspondence bias
identitythe way individuals understand themselves and are recognized by others
identity denialwhen an indiv is not recognized as a member of a group to which he/she identifies
independent construal of selfa sense of self that views the self as a bounded entity, clearly separated from relevant others
interdependent construal of selfa sense of self that views the self as unbounded, flexible, and contingent on context; sense of self is based on a principle of the fundamental connectedness among people
internal attributionsattributions that specify the cause of behaviour within a person; also called dispositional attributions because they are attributions about people's dispositions
mutual self-enhancementself-enhancement that is achieved through the giving and receiving of compliments between partners in a close relationship
personal identitya form of id characterized by the qualities and attributes that distinguish oneself from others
racial identityindividuals' psychological membership in a distinct racial group
relational identityform of identity that refers to our qualities of ourselves in relation to others
self-conceptidea or images that one has about oneself and how and why one behaves
self-effacementtendency to downplay one's virtues
self-enhancementcollection of psychological processes by which individuals maintain or enhance their self-esteem
self-esteemcognitive and affective evaluations we make about ourselves
self-serving biasbias in which people tend to attribute good deeds and successes to own internal attributes but attribute bad deeds or failures to external factors
situational dispositionsattributions based on situation or context
tactical self-enhancementidea that people of different cultures all self-enhance, but they choose to do it in different ways
terror management theorytheory that suggests that, because humans have unique cognitive abilities, they are the only animals that are aware of the fact that we will die eventually, and we are afraid of that inevitable death; inevitable death is terrifying to us, and thus we create psychological phenomena as a buffer against terror of dying

Section 2

Question Answer
androgynygender identity that involves endorsement of both male and female characteristics
biosocial modelmodel that suggests that biological differences between the sexes interact with the environment to produce culture-specific sex roles that are adaptations to the environment
genderbehaviours or patterns of activities a society or culture deems appropriate for men and women; behavioral patterns may or may not be related to sex and sex roles, although often are
gender identitythe degree to which a person has awareness of or recognition that he or she has adopted a particular gender role
gender roledegree to which a person adopts the gender-specific behaviours ascribed by his/her culture
gender role ideologyjudgments about what gender roles in a particular culture ought to be
gender stereotypepsychological or behavioral characteristics typically associated with men and women
machismoconcept related to Mexican American gender role differentiation that is characterized by many traditional expectations of the male gender role, such as being unemotional, strong, authoritative, and aggressive
sexthe biological and physiological differences between men and women, most obvious being the anatomical differences
sex rolesthe behaviours and patterns of activities men and women may engage in that are directly related to their biological differences and the process of reproduction
sexual identitydegree of awareness and recognition by an indiv of his or her sex and sex roles

Section 3

Question Answer
arranged marriagesa marriage in which someone other than the couple being married makes the decision about who will be wed; can by the parents of the individuals
aggressionany act or behaviour that intentionally hurts another person, either physically or psychologically
acculturationthe process by which people adopt a different cultural system
autostereotypesstereotypes about your own group
categorizationthe process by which psychological concepts are grouped together
collective threatfear that an in-group member's behaviour can reinforce negative stereotypes about one's group
complianceyielding to social pressure in one's public behaviour, even though one's private beliefs may not have changed
conceptmental category we use to classify events, objects, situations, behaviors, or even people with respect to what we perceive as common properties
conformityyielding to real or imagined social pressure
contact hypothesisthe proposition that contact between groups is especially effective in reducing prejudice
cooperationpeople's ability to work together toward common goals
cultural fit hypothesisproposition that immigrants and sojourners with characteristics that match their host countries will adjust better than those with less of a match
cultures of honorcultures in which norms place strong emphasis on status and reputation
discriminationthe unfair treatment of others based on their group membership
ethnocentrismtendency to view the world through one's own cultural filters
explicit prejudiceprejudice that is verbalized and thus made public
heterostereotypesstereotypes about other groups
group entitativitythe belief that groups are like people in that they have intentions and the ability to plan actions
implicit prejudiceprejudicial attitudes, values, or beliefs that are unspoken and perhaps even outside conscious awareness
infra-humanizationthe belief that others lack human qualities
in-group derogationnegative attitudes or beliefs about one's own in-group
in-group relationshipsrelationships characterized by some degree of familiarity, intimacy, and trust; feel close to people around us we consider to be in our in-group; self-in-group relationships develop through bodes that tie the in-group together through common friendship or relationships or goals
institutional discriminationdiscrimination occurring on the level of a large group, society, or organization, or institution
intercultural adaptationhow people change their behaviours or ways of thinking in a new cultural environment
mate poachingattracting someone who is already in a romantic relationship with someone else
model minority stereotypestereotype of Asian Americans as overachievers
obedienceform of compliance that occurs when people follow direct commands, usually from someone in a position of authority
out-group relationshipsrelationships that lack the familiarity, intimacy, and trust characteristics of relationships with in-group others
Need for Cognitive Closuredesire for a definite answer to a question rather than uncertainty or ambiguity
person perceptionprocess of forming impressions of others
prejudicetendency to prejudge others on the basis of their group membership
racial microaggressionbrief and commonplace indignities that communicate negative slights and insults
social capitalthe social resources available to a person that can be used to obtain one's goals; include social factors such as interpersonal trust, civic engagement, and time spent with friends
stereotypesgeneralized images we have about groups of people, particularly about their underlying psychological characteristics or personality traits