PSYC 352 Weeks 7-13 Important Studies and People

blueghost's version from 2016-04-13 15:47


Question Answer
Li and Glietman: Spatial Reference Termstest speakers preferences in encoding spatial arrests, not comparing ability to solve spatial tasks; Tseltal speakers think of left/right but do not use these when other options are available; English speakers use geocentric terms
Past Tense Similarity Judgment Studywhen tested in English, responded more like English speakers; when tested in Indonesians, responded more towards Indonesian speakers; spoken language seems to affect memory--> English will correctly id more if they have seen the picture before
Time and DifferencesEnglish--> more forward in time; Mandarin-->move downwards ; change in spatial thinking
Nature and Nurture Study: prenatal androgen exposurealters girls' responses to info indicating gender-appropriate behaviour --> less interest in gendered activities; more likely to do what they want to vs. what they "should" do; nature and nurture--> androgens may be causing receptiveness to gender norms
Singles Ad Study younger men show no preference for younger partners, but older men prefer younger partners; women want men around their age or older
Serotonin Transporter Geneshorter allele--S Allele--(one or more) tend to show increased negative emotions ; SSRI drugs may be more affective for longer allele--> L allele; more S alleles seem to indicate higher scale on collectivism; effect of gene depends on environment--> genes tune how sensitive you are to different environmental factors; Culturally differences --> US: S allele carriers more likely to seek social support, Korea: S allele carriers LESS likely to seek support--> seems to make people more sensitive to environment and culture norms, culture can change the direction of association of gene and outcome
Dopamine Receptor Gene (gambling and risk control) L-allele more prevalent in migratory populations; longer the distance population traveled from Africa, the more the likelihood of having more dopamine; related to adaptivity and personality traits like novel seeking and exploratory behaviour
Whitehall and Job Title Study with SESlow SES job status was associated with obesity, unhealthy behaviours, height, blood pressure, etc; lower social status causes more stress; blood pressure level differences ONLY associated AT work
Pen Studyfit in or stick out mentality related to objects?; East Asians (interdependent sense) tended to choose majority pens which European Americans (independent sense) tended to pick minority pens; in public--> Japanese more likely to pick majority and Americans the minority; in private--> same result; conclusions--> cost of negative reputation greater in societies were replacing relationships is hard, safer to avoid behaviour that could offend others
Vignette Studywhether you buy a pen first or last; findings: cultural difference in choices are not due to preferences but instead reflect differences in strategy adapted to particular socio-ecological context
US South Aggressionculture of honor; men socialized to care about reputation; difference between north and south relate to murders and situations where honor is at stake; differences more pronounced in more rural areas
Asshole STudyconfederate walks down hall and sees when person will budge (insult or not insult the person); souther men generally more polite without insult; testosterone surge in Southern men AFTER insult (affront to honor)
Herders and Culture of HonorSouthern was historically herders; wealth was portable, policing land was difficult, reputation as someone who would protect self/respond with violence protected wealth
Overestimation of Peer Aggressiveness Studyparticipants: white northern/southern men at three universities; question about punching other based on beer spilled on you with our w/o apology; results--> participants thought peers would be more violent than they would (and southerners thought this even more than northerners); correlation between perceived aggression level and perceived aggression even of others
Encouragement of Aggression by Bystandershostile vs apologetic situation in which confederate smashes glasses and insults or apologies; results--> mea more encouraging of aggression than women but no difference in northern/southern encouragement
Post-Partum Depression Studyemotional distress after having a child; women get no help after having a child--> loss of what to do because no previous experience; Andrea Yates killed several of her children because of post partum depression
Adler and Nocturnal Death Syndromesudden epidemic of nocturnal death in Hmong men; belief in sleep paralysis causing? --> nighttime attacks thought to be related to not worshipping ancestors' spirits properly and that they were punished for not carrying out duty
Cuento Therapytreatment for hispanic adolescents that utilizes culturally relevant folktale to address issues related to educational and psych difficulties; thought to increase treatment engagement; way to talk about what might be bothering indiv without speaking about self; hypothetical situations help create solutions
Yuma Shamans: Okinawa schizophrenia leads to classification into categories and seen as spiritual leaders; mediate between the community and supernatural; divination and healing
Christian Counseling some psych problems are more clearly "diseases" than others; results of sin or fallout of the sins of others; DSM IV misses problems Christians encounter
Christian Women Case Studythought that God would honor her faith with faithful husband and kids; husband cheated and son had behavioral problems; she was embarrassed and thought she offended God; ends up thinking she can do nothing right and is a failure