PSYC 352 Weeks 1-6 Important People and Studies from LECTURE

blueghost's version from 2016-03-01 16:33


Question Answer
Dimensions of Culture: Hofstede made career looking at cultural dimensions; individualism vs. collectivism was his biggest; power distance; uncertainty avoidance; famine and masculine; short and Long-term orientation
Criticism of Hofstededata based ONLY on IBM; time dependent rules (cultures change over time); reflection of business ONLY at IBM; only IDed a few cultural dimensions; partial geographic coverage; western bias; attitudinal rather than behavioral-- doesn't connect attitudes and actions; ecological fallacy (national level data generalized to individual)
Schwartz's Classificationembeddedness vs. autonomy; hierarchy vs. egalitarianism
GLOBE Projectlooking at 9 dimensions of culture-> uncertainty avoidance; power distance; social collectivism; in-group collectivism (gender egalitarianism); assertiveness; future orientation; performance orientation; humane orientation
Bowlby's Theory of Attachmentinfant's must have preprogrammed, biological basis for attaching to a caregiver (survival strategy)
Bowlby and Ainsworth's Classification System of Attachmentsecure, ambivalent, or avoidant attachment based on "Strange Situation"
Strange SituationBowlby and Ainsworth; mother leaves/comes back and the reaction of the child is measured; looks at classification of attachment
Piaget's Theorycognitive development stages--> Sensorimotor stage, preoperational stage, concrete operations stage, formal operations stage
Great Divide Theoryseparates Westerners' thoughts from people in "primitive" societies--> basis of a lot of stage theories which judge on how closely people resemble the WEIRD norm
Kohlberg's Stage Theory of Moralitymost influential model of moral reasoning; proposes universal set of three moral levels (later divided into six stages, two in each level); preconvential level; conventional level; and post conventional level; Stages--> 1: obedience orientation, 2: instrumental orientation, 3: interpersonal norms, 4: social system morality, 5: social contract, 6: universal ethical principles
Gilliganquestioned universality for girls and women because Kohlberg based on all male sample; care perspective --> views people in terms of connectedness with others, emphasizes interpersonal communication, relationship with others, and concern for others
Kohlberg justice perspective of moral development; focus on rights of an individual, individuals stand alone and independently make more decisions
Baby/Mother Monkey Study with Fear Nature vs. Nurture concept; What: monkey's shown video of a mother monkey afraid of a snack and then a flower--> monkeys will also be afraid of snake but will not develop fear to flower; THEREFORE: Some fears are natural and just require exposure
Zebra Finch Song Studyfinch raised in isolation never learns normal song and sings garbled tune; subsequent generations hear the previous generation's song; after several generations, song returns to natural; THEREFORE: a pattern is there and requires exposure to trigger