PSYC 352 Main Themes from Lecture

blueghost's version from 2016-03-01 17:04

Section 1

Question Answer
Goal of Psychologyincrease knowledge about people; create models of behaviour; scientific research; application of knowledge to better society
Weaknesses of Cross-Cultural Psychologymost theories are based on WEIRDO studies with American University students; hard to determine universal variables and culturally specific variables
What is WEIRDO?Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, Democratic
Importance of Cross-Cultural Psych incomplete knowledge of mind without seeing how culture shapes psych processes; application in multicultural societies
Cross-Cultural Psych: What is it?what: a research method testing cultural parameters of psych knowledge by comparing data from participants of more than one cultural background; a scientific philosophy--> NOT a disciple, NOT topic specific
Universal Etics avoidance of insist, facial expressions of emotion, labour division by sex, colour perception, mate selection and sexual jealousy, personality traits (debatable still), self-enhancement processes (debatable still)
Uniquely Human Characteristics of Culture skills: language, complex social cognition, Ratchet effect; co-evolution of mind and society
Society vs. Culturesociety: system of interrelationships amount people (both human and non-human have societies); culture: meanings and info associated WITH a SOCIETY (humans give social groups special meanings)
Key Components of Culturedynamic, system of rules, groups and units, ensures survival, potential to change over time, attitudes/beliefs/values/norms/behaviour, harbored differently by specific units, communicated across generations, relatively stable
Culture and RaceRace is NOT culture; genetic studies show more within group than between group variation; race is a social construct
Culture and EthnicityEthnicity--> refers to groups of common nationality, geographic origin, culture or language; knowing ethnicity alone DOES NOT explain psych outcomes in cognition, emotion, motivation or health
Culture and Nationality nationality--> refers to person's country of origin; researchers often assume that culture underlies country; nationality is NOT culture: culture coexists in a country
Where does culture come from?the need to survive; need to create solutions on how to adapt to environment and address needs/motives; the SOLUTIONS are culture (products of interaction between universal biological needs, social motives, and context)
Factors of Influence on cultural developmentecological: ecology/environment, subsistence system; Social: socio-cultural (outside individual motives), individual (internal motives), inter-individual (behaviour patterns); Biological: average personality differences, aggregate genetic differences
False Assumptions of Culture and Homogeneity individuals within a group are relatively homogeneous (more variation within group than between groups)
Progression of Cross-Cultural Researchbeginning: documented differences (very racist); Current: determine cultural variables that create differences (culture is now specific and measurable); Future: universal theories of psych processes

Section 2

Question Answer
Problems that go with studying culturedefining culture; understanding differences; bias and errors in research, quasi experimental (cannot randomly assign individuals to certain cultures, only natural experiments, hard to tell the EXACT thing that causes the differences between groups)
Cross-cultural validation studiestest equivalence of psych measures; important to conduct before cross-cultural comparisons
Indigenous cultural studies characteristics rich descriptions of complex theoretical models of culture; predict and explain cultural differences; psych processes can be understood within the culture; understanding of behavior requires IN-DEPTH analysis of cultural systems; roots in anthropology
Cross-Cultural Comparison characteristicsbackbone of cross-cultural research; compare two cultures on a variable of interest; shows differences but NOT why
Ecological-Level Studies characteristicsstudies using countries/cultures as unit of analysis; limitations: not always applicable on individual level; why important: theoretical framework to predict/explain cultural differences, can examine relationship between different eco-level data sets
More is Better: Multiple Method Reasoningno single design is perfect because of alternative explanations/methodological flaws; best way to counter problems; using multiple methods to replicate findings while disproving alternative accounts creates very compelling info
Dealing with Non-equivalent datatry to reduce the non-equivalence (reduce the bias); interpret it (why did it happen?); ignore... bad
Cultural Attribution Fallacy attributing cause of between group differences as CULTURAL without empirical justification
Effect Size Analysis state procedure to determine degree to which differences in mean values reflects meaningful differences amount individuals; way to deal with interpretational bias (bias from researcher)