PSYC 352 Main Themes from Lecture Cont.

blueghost's version from 2016-03-02 03:20

Section 1

Question Answer
Five-Factory Modelthe big five; include--> neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, conscientiousness (OCEAN); emerging consensus these five can explain bulk of human personality
Stages of Cross-Cultural Assessment"transport and test stage" ; "stage of indigenous psychology" ; "Internationalization stage"
Transport and Test StageWhat: taking epic and imposing somewhere else--> top down and western in origin; problems: intellectual imperialism (we assume we have the best methods and that other responses will fit with our theories), are the imported constructs useful with local culture?, bias and preconceptions (may ignore/try to explain something in another way), are there important personality characteristics of LOCAL culture which are NOT in Western measures?
Stage of Indigenous PsychWhat: addresses culture-specific phenomena, bottom-up and local approach, derivation of EMIC personality constructs from native's perspective, sensitive to the culture, development of indigenous measures; Why important: enrich understanding of cultural meaning of personality patters, increase prediction of outcomes, theories on the basis of local phenomena (get around research imperialism); Problems: over emphasis on cultural uniqueness --> more emphasis on differences than similarities, trying to find factors that don't fit big five
Internationalization Stage What: integration of the results from epic, emic approaches, more universal psych which will be valid for a broader range of cultures, measure for more integrated and balanced view of human behaviour
Combined Emic-Etic Approachconvergence approach; derive indigenous measures and then see if unbiased instruments yield similar results--> universality
Cultural Fitdegree to which personality is similar to the particular culture in which individual resides; culture into which you were born is NOT always the best fit for personality
Individualism Hofestede; focus on person over group; speak one's mind; task over relationship; privacy
Collectivism Hofestede; focus on family and belonging, harmony; group boundaries (in-group vs. out-group); relationships over tasks
Power Distance Hofestede; Small: no emphasis on age, subordinates think they should be consulted, student-centered education, parents and children are equal; large: parents over children, age emphasis with respect/fear component, teacher-centered education, subordinates TOLD what to do
Uncertainty Avoidance: WeakHofestede; uncertainty in life is accepted, lower stress, higher scores on well-being, comfortable with ambiguity/chaos
Uncertainty Avoidance: StrongHofestede; uncertainty felt as a threat, high stress, lower scores on well-being, need for clarity/structure
Feminine and Masculine Hofestede; Femininity = minimum differentiation between genders, modest and caring, balance between family and work, sympathy for weak; Masculinity = role differentiation, men--> assertive and ambitious, work over family, admiration for strong
Short-Term OrientationHofestede; most important events in life occurred in past/take place now; immediate need for gratification; social spending/consumption; stress on short-term profits
Long-Term Orientation Hofestede; most important events will occur in future; delayed gratification; investing and sharing; thrifty; stress on future market position
Schwartz's Embeddedness vs. Autonomy similar to individualism vs. collectivism; embeddedness--> emphasis on relationships and tradition; autonomy--> finding meaning in own uniqueness
Schwartz's Hierarchy vs. Egalitarianism hierarchy--> legitimacy of hierarchal roles and resource allocation; egalitarianism--> promoting other's welfare
Pros and Cons of Cultural DimensionsPros: help us create overarching theories of culture, ID types of cultures rather than specific ones, avoid using country as proxy of culture; Cons: overlook subtle variations, labels can be biased, can lead to erroneous perceptions of individuals (used as basis for stereotypes)

Section 2

Question Answer
Language Acquisition: Sensitive Periodpick up languages more easily when younger; brain processes languages differently depending on age of acquisition; second language processed in different area when learned later in life; brain is flexible at restructuring/ accommodating different languages BUT ONLY earlier in life
Culture: Sensitive Periodsseems to be a lot larger than language; there are less cultural differences in younger children because they have had less socialization than cross-cultural adults
Neonatal Behaviour Assessment Scale (NBAS) What: assesses newborn behaviours in first 30 days; findings: high altitude babies less attentive, responses and active; more difficulty self-soothing; differences across culture--> need to consider caregiving ways, cultural goals and expectations, environmental conditions
Goodness of Fit between Temperament and Culturemismatch = expect negative outcomes ; good match = expect better child outcomes; BUT need to consider dispositions and behaviours in relation to the specific culture
Secure Attachment a Universal Ideal?attachment between infant/caregiver is universal phenomena, but cultures can differ on what is "ideal" and on the meaning of separation
Differences in Babies' interaction with Mothermore physical contact in some cultures; more face-to-face interaction in some cultures
Differences in where baby sleepsco-sleep (baby in same room) vs. separate room; idea in America that co-sleeping is wrong; co-sleeping IS increasing, however
Parenting Style: Intuitive Practicessimilarities cross-culturally--> things that come about naturally when caring for babies; Includes = attempt to capture/maintain infant's attention, exaggerate facial expressions, motherese (higher pitch/larger variations in pitch when speaking with infants)
Parenting syle dimensionsdemandingness (control)degree to which parents create rules and expectations of behaviour/require compliance; responsiveness (warmth)degree to which parents are sensitive to needs of kids and extent of expression of love/warmth/concern
Piaget's Theorybelieved it occurs in same fixed order in other culture but with variation in ages; considerable variable in order of acquired skills within the stages (different societies have different values/reward different skills)
Piaget's Theory and the Fourth Stagein some cultures, few people complete the fourth stage (formal operation); why: are tasks culturally appropriate? do they depend on previous knowledge/cultural values? universality of the last stage is QUESTIONABLE

Section 3

Question Answer
Perception and Physical Reality our perception of the world does not necessarily match the physical realities of our senses
Culture and CategorizationUniversal: process of categorization--> universal categories = facial expressions, colors, stereotypes, and shapes; culturally different: way in which people categorize--> western cultures sort hierarchically, others may sort by function vs. category/taxonomy
Culture and MemoryUniversal: memory decreases with age, hindsight bias is present; Cultural Differences: memory as a function of oral tradition for meaningful material, serial position effect
serial position effectrecency vs. primacy; recency--> remember last digit; primacy--> remember first digit; primacy seems more common in educated populations
Culture and Problem Solvinglogical reasoning is supposed to be non contextual in the West (ignore the context, concentrate on underlying logical problem); whether or not you can solve a problem depends on your cultural knowledge and familiarity with the material/objects
Syllogistic Reasoningdeductive reasoning; Western-schooling seems to relate to whether or not could solve question; Kpelle Riddles: right answer is creative, cannot be extracted from form of the riddle by logical operations, is related to other principles in the culture
Arbitrary Syllogisms and Western WEIRDosunable to complete the question when content was arbitrary, harder to figure out, need cultural knowledge to solve the problems
Deductive Reasoning and the REAL WORLD few people actually use it; it is not spontaneous; judgements are based on subjective probability; conjunction fallacy
conjunction fallacysomething might seem more possible even though it is actually less possible because we base the decision on subjective probability

Section 4

Question Answer
Males and Female Differencesmales have more variability than females (this is a controversial issue); distributions put males more on each end
Ethnic Similarities and Differences: Assumptionsaggregate mean differences between groups are NOT PREDICTIVE of differences between individuals (easy to start forming stereotypes, group differences do not automatically apply to individual); acknowledging that genetic factors contribute to intelligence DOES NOT MEAN that differences observed between cultural/national/regional/ethnic groups ARE genetic (hundreds of genes--> not just ONE contributes to intelligence, heterogeneity within groups is larger than between groups)
Socio-Economic Status and Intelligence individuals from lower socio-economic classes tend to have lower intelligence test scores; BUT, the ethnic/social group with the lowest scores will change over time, average IQ has been increasing, lower-status-lower-score is NOT always predictive
The Flynn Effectoverall intelligence tends to be increasing over time; explanations--> could be environment and life as child; exposure to different chemicals in the environment has changed (no more lead poisoning); exact reason still unknown
Heredity vs. Environment: Which is more important?REALLY IMPORTANT QUESTION; general agreement that both affect IQ; relative contributions of each; nature and nurture GO TOGETHER
Low SES and Intelligence reasoning Low SES = environmental stress--> obstacle to healthy development, hard to reach full potential, inability to develop fully because of lack of resources/exposure
Cross-cultural variation in heritability of intelligence genes are more predictive of intelligence in social welfare countries; there are smaller genetic effects in the US (larger impact of enviro and SES, greater differences in schools for high/low SES)
Concept of Intelligence In different CulturesUS: practical problem solving, verbal reasoning, social competence; China: cognitive ability, interpersonal competence (understanding others), intrapersonal competence (understanding self)
Practical Intelligenceintelligence on something that won't be acquired unless that skill is useful to you
Problems in measuring IQmeasure motivation as much as intelligence; cultural biases
Alternative Traditional IQ Testsinitial assessment provides baseline performance (intervention); second testing indicates what individual learned
Entity View of Academic Performanceintelligence is fixed and stable; concern with LOOKING smart; performance oriented; learned helplessness--> give up easily when facing failure
Incremental View of Academic Performance intelligence is malleable and changeable; intelligence can be increased with effort; emphasis on gaining knowledge more than just getting good grades; learning oriented; become more motivated to improve when facing failure
Implicit Theoriesstudies suggest that Asian cultures are more likely to foster incremental beliefs; incremental belief children show more gains in academic motivation
Future Gene Researchgenetic sequencing is possible and becoming inexpensive; large scale studies of genetics on intelligence are underway