PSYC 352 Lecture Notes Weeks 7-13

blueghost's version from 2016-04-13 01:54

Section 1

Question Answer
Acquired Biological Differencescultural effects on bio, independent of genes
Acquired Biology: Health--> Socio-Economic Statusmost important predictor of health/mortality rates; SES gradient link has been found in industrialized and non-industrialized countries; stress mediates (lack of control over life); some environments shown to create more stress
Cultural Dimensions and Disease higher power distance, higher individualism, higher uncertainty avoidance, masculinity
Higher Power Distance and Diseasehigher infection rate; lower rates of heart disease and circulatory disease
Higher Individualism and Diseasehigher heart disease, lower infection
Higher Uncertainty Avoidance and Diseasehigher heart disease;lower respiratory disease
Masculinity and Diseasehigher cardiovascular disease
Collectivist Cultures and Heart Attacksless likely to experience heart disease but more likely to have effect be fatal; take longer to get help after experiencing a heart attack
Bio Variable: Obesityvaries across countries; growing across many countries (not explained by genetics)--> larger portions, higher calorie foods, more sedentary life, suburban life; variation in rates (ex: France and portion control)
Bio Variable: Heightaverage height of people has gone up; economic wealth of country ties to height--> more wealth - taller ; genetics do not explain

Section 2

Question Answer
Whorfian Questiondoes language alter the way we think
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis (strong version) linguistic determinism: language determines thought; speakers of different languages see world in different, incompatible ways
Sapir-Whorft Hypothesis (weak version)linguistic relativity: language influences the way you think and how you see the world
Inuit Languagesdifferent ones, not all possess the same number of terms, people will create their own vocabulary
Universality of Color Cognition?color perception seems determined by biology not language; comparative judgements can affect naming and therefore categorization of color, but similarity rates across colors didn't seem to vary for different languages
Language and thoughtlanguage does not determine thought; language COULD impact categorization and memory, what we think is associated with certain objects, and the words we use may influence our cognitive development
Grammatical Gendergrammatical gender of language you speak might influence how likely you are to remember word pairs

Section 3

Question Answer
Bridepricegroup pays bride's family ; some research shows this can lead to more domestic violence
dowrybride's family pays groom's family
ethical absolutismone set of moral values applies to all people and cultures
cultural relativismmoral values are relative to culture; no universal values
moral skepticismthere are no known absolute moral values; we endorse moral values simply because they are ours
natural fallacydrawing an imperative (ought) from a description of facts (is); basically, because something IS a certain way, it SHOULD be a certain way
Gender stereotypes around worldstable; men --> active, strong, crucial, conscientious, extraverted, open; women --> passive, weak, nurturing, adaptive, agreeable, neurotic
Common Gender Folkloremales are better at math and spatial reasoning; females are better at verbal communication
aggressivenessstereotype tends to be universal; common gender stereotype that males are more aggressive than females; hormone contribution and male crime stats support; culture and environment can encourage/discourage this
division of labourtends to be universal (every culture differentiates, but how may differ); biological differences led to division in evolutionary history; biggest difference is in the house
Female Economic Conditionwomen more likely to be part-time; pay gap is present
Sex and Sexuality Differences in culturesdifference in importance on values like chastity (especially for women); degree of nudity acceptable varies; differences in attitudes toward sex and sexual orientation; practice of circumcision and FGM (mutilation belief or not)
Men Mate Preferences (traits)physical attractiveness --> racial and body symmetry for genetic quality and health in development
Women Mate Preferenceslook at financial prospects/economic resources; social status; are more choosy in that they want to be provided for
Romantic lovenot a universal idea that marriage is based on romantic love; need and want for romantic attachments is widespread, however
Attractiveness Universalsaverage people; symmetry, clear complexion, average features --> good genetic robustness; men with masculine traits (higher testosterone lowers immune system and therefore if they survived they obviously have good genes)
Cultural Variability: Body Weightbodies that depart from average seen as more attractive; kind of body seen as attractive varies across cultures; waist to hip ratio--> men generally attracted to lower waist to hip ratio
sexual dimorphismmales and females of a species looking very different; seems to reflect a lot about mating systems--> males that provide parental care are focused on one female (therefore have less intense competition and selection) and do not develop dimorphism as much as those who do not care and must compete for mates (stronger sexual selection)
Environment and Biology with Sex/Genderinfluence of both bio and culture on sex/gender differences; societal factors influence gender differences; environment and biology interact

Section 4

Question Answer
sense of self and influenceat the core of being; automatically influences thoughts, actions, and feelings
independent construal of self cultureswestern/individualistic cultures construe self as independent and separate entities, that they people behave the way they do because of who they are
interdependent construal of self culturesnon-western/collectivist cultures construe individuals as interdependent and inseparable from social context; overlap with other people; behave the way they do because of context/relationships with others
Cultures and insultscollectivist insults directed at person and family; individualist cultures directed at person
Agency and Control for people with independent viewsentity theories of self but incremental of the world--> self is fixed and world is malleable; people exercise primary control, meaning strive to change circumstances to fit desires
agency and control for people with interdependent viewsincremental theories of self and entity theory of the world --> self is malleable and responses to efforts change, world is fixed and out of our control; secondary control = change self to fit situation and the world
Individual vs. Group Agencyin collectivist societies, groups are primary focus rather than individuals; seen as more powerful
Fit in or Stick outinterdependent cultures want to fit in which independent culture want to stick out
Impact of Self-Construal Theoryone of first process models that explains why cultural differences occurred in so many areas of psych; helps reduce reliance on cultural stereotypes, anecdotes, and impressions in generating hypotheses about cultural differences
Matsumoto's Critique of Self-Construalbased on untested assumptions on sense of self; validity only exists if one accepts these assumptions; theory remains valid ONLY if four assumptions are accepted (based on a meta analysis)--> tested countries associated with underlying self-construals, specific self-construals are associated with hypothesized cognitive,emotional, and motivational consequences, tested countries are associated with underlying cultural dimensions necessary for development of self-construals, cultures underlying the countries are associated with the specific self-construals
criticism to self construal approach to cultural differencesindependent and interdependent are the same as individualism and collectivism; psychologists have consistent understanding of what collectivism is, but it doesn't always match reality
fluidity of identityid changes in different contexts/cultures; how we are viewed by others may not be the same as how we view ourselves
effect of social categorizationdifferentiation has the effect of sharpening the distinctions between the categories and blurs the differences within them
residential mobility and relationshipslow residential mobility (not moving much) presumably means more stable social network; id is defined by both personality traits and group membership; personality traits are more important with high residential mobility as group memberships may change with move
relational mobility and relationshipsin high mobility people typically have much freedom in deciding relationships; low mobility means less freedom of decision and relationships come from default in-groups
mobility and similarityhigh mobility means clustering based on similarity;
mobility and friends and enemieshigh mobility --> people choose --> can opt to avoid people who can be enemies; low mobility --> people aren't likely to be able to pick in-group/members --> enemies from within
"enemy ship"inability to avoid enemies; natural state of life; concept of Ghanaians