PSYC 352 Lecture Notes Weeks 7-13 Cont.

blueghost's version from 2016-04-13 15:07

Section 1

Question Answer
Culture-Specifity of Attributional Stylesstudies show N. Americans commit fundamental attribution errors more than E. Asians; strong evidence for universality of self-serving bias; people of different cultures differ in why they use attributional processes
rational attribution errorsome evidence that attribution strategies can be adapted to environment; internal in individualistic cultures and situational in societies with constraining social ties; tendency for internal attributions corresponds to number of new people one meets--> can replace relationships if you mess up
Behavioral Ecologyhuman behavioral ecology (anthropology); concerned with physical environment--> scarcity of resources, pathogens, etc; need to understand the environment to understand other aspects
social ecologysocial animals adapt behaviour to ecologies compromised of the behaviour of others; reliant on perceptions/understanding of what people are like
Origin of individualism/collectivisminternalized perspective; different religious and philosophical traditions
cultural lagcultural norms tend to persist even when the original use is no longer valid (no longer needed but still used)
institutional perspective equilibrium caused by cultural practices; informal institution--> rules of the game, and following the rules reinforces them; self-sustaining equilibrium of beliefs and behaviours
Collectivist solution to agent problemsmutual monitoring and sanctioning; keeping social order requires closure of group boundaries--> exclusion for social control and solving of second-order social dilemma
collectivist equilibriumclosure of group boundaries and collectivist beliefs are mutually reinforcing--> watch other and punish if don't behave, accept beliefs and schemas and act in accordance
inter-subjective culture"culture" as what we think about other people or what we think that other people are thinking; act on what we think others believe/value even though private beliefs may differ; have a say on internalization of norms, but may behave in accordance anyway
pluralistic ignorancein many cases, people make assessments of beliefs of other individuals in their society; everyone makes an incorrect basement of what other people are thinking
when intersubjective knowledge is usedwhen social norms are salient--> held responsible to in-group audience, based on interaction
default decision rulesheuristics; facilitate the use of dominant adaptation strategy
cultural institutionsrules of the game; incentives for indiv decision makers; dynamic relationship between decision rules players come to acquire and the structure of the game; NOT a aggregation of individuals' preferences (intersubjective); self-sustaining--> beliefs: expectations about how others will respond to one's actions, incentives: created by beliefs, encourage people to behave in particular manner, behaviour: people behave in a incentive-driven manner and the behaviour reinforces the beliefs
institutional approachcultural differences can be explained as strategies adapted to different institutions; in order to understand behaviour, necessary to look at the incentive which guides behaviour in different social circumstances

Section 2

Question Answer
culture/indigenous view of abnormality cultures nd psychopathology are intertwine; behaviour must be understood in cultural framework
cross-cultural view of abnormalityculture plays a role in determining behaviour yet there are cross-cultural similarities in underlying psycho mechanisms and subjective experiences of disorders
Possible models for defining a mental disorderas a violation of cultural standards; as a maladaptive or harmful behaviour; as emotional distress
DSM IV Axes clinical syndromes; personality disorders or mental retardation; general medical conditions; psychosocial and environmental concerns; global assessment of functioning scale
Issues with DSM IV danger of over-diagnosis; power of labels; confusion of serious disorders with normal problems; illusion of objectivity; cultural specificity (some disorders may not exist/manifest in the same way in other countries
DSM IV Response to Criticismincorporated clinical manifestation of disorders across cultures; 24 culture-bound syndromes; guidelines for in-depth assessment of cultural background
Cross-Cultural Research Contributions on Psychopathologyuniversal and culture-specific elements; contributes to understanding of interplay between indiv differences and environment; gene x environment interactions
major depressionmood disorder involving disturbances in emotion, behaviour, cognition, and body function; some universal symptoms
somatization of depressionmore prevalent in individualist cultures (more talk of emotions and feelings); somatic symptoms dominate in collectivist culture (more talk of body pain); symptom patterns differ cross-culturally
ADHDhas been recognized/diagnosed in other countries; more prevalent in boys over girls; prevalence rates vary probably do to methods of study
Cross-Cultural Issues with anxiety disordersmaterial achievement anxiety common in West but to other countries; cultural behaviours do not mean a disorder; similarity of symptoms does not necessarily mean the similarity in severity cross-culturally
culture-bound syndromesprimarily emic approaches (culture specific); pattern of symptoms differ from Western Classification schemes
Sleep Paralysisout of sequence REM state; unable to move when awake because of mix of brain states; known to just about all cultures, and almost always associated with nocturnal evil
Disparities in Treatmentnot all equally likely to get treatment; economic ability affects whether one gets treatment; different age groups influence whether getting treatment
Ethnic Minority Treatment and Outcomesmore likely to be misdiagnosed, more likely to drop out of treatment; can we match ethnicity of patient and provider to help? not much difference
Imposed Etics issueproblem with treatment procedures; focus on "feelings" and disclosure in individualistic cultures; some treatment can be harmful (thinking about something makes it worse)
Culturally Appropriate Programs--> Indigenous Treatmentprograms are culturally appropriate if they incorporate values, beliefs, worldview, and behaviours of ethnic minorities into assessment/therapeutic activities

Section 3