PSYC 352 Chapter 5 Vocabulary

blueghost's version from 2016-03-02 18:06


Question Answer
analytical perceptioncontext independent perceptual processes that focuses on a salient object independently from the context in which it is embedded
attentionthe focusing of our limited capacities of consciousness on a particular set of stimuli, whose features are noted and processed in more depth than is true of non-focal stimuli
blind spota spot in our visual field where the optic nerve goes through the layer of receptor cells on its way back toward the brain, creating a lack of sensory receptors in the eye at that location
carpentered world theory theory of perception that suggests that people (at least most Americans) are used to seeing things that are rectangular in shape, and thus unconsciously expect things to have square corners
categorizeto classify objects on the basis of perceived similarities and attach labels (words) to those classifications
cognitiona term denoting all mental processes we use to transform sensory input into knowledge
collective intelligencethe general ability of a group to perform a wide variety of tasks
counterfactual thinkinghypothetical beliefs about the past that could have occurred in order to avoid or change a negative outcome
dialectical thinkingthe tendency to accept what seems to be contradictions in thought or beliefs
episodic memorythe recollect of specific events that took place at a particular time and place in the past
everyday cognitionan area of study that examines cognitive skills and abilities that are used in everyday functions that appear to develop without formal education, but from performing daily tasks of living and working
gender stratification hypothesis the idea that gender differences are related to cultural variations in opportunity structures for girls and women
front-horizontal foreshortening theorytheory of perception that suggests that we interpret vertical lines as horizontal lines extending into the distance; because of this, we see it as longer
hindsight biasprocess in which individuals adjust their memory for something after they find out the true outcome
holistic perception context dependent perceptional processes that focus on the relationship between objects and their contexts
microsccades micro eye movements that help our brains fill in scenes so it looks as if we see everything
naive dialectivisma constellation of lay beliefs about the nature of the world (rather than a cognitive style as suggested by dialectical thinking); characterized be the doctrine of the mean, or the belief that the truth is always somewhere in the middle
optical illusionsperceptions that involve an apparent discrepancy between how an object looks and what it actually is
perceptionprocess of gathering information about the world through our senses; our initial interpretations of sensations
positive logical determinism tendency to see contradictions as mutually exclusive categories, as either-or, yes-no, one-or-the-other types of categories
priminga method used to determine if one stimulus affects another
problem solvingthe process by which we attempt to discover ways of achieving goals that do not seem readily attainable
sensationthe feelings that result from excitation of the sensory receptors such as touch, taste, smell, sight, or hearing
serial position effectfinding that people tend to remember something better if it is either first or last in a list
social orientation hypothesis hypothesis that cultural differences in individualism vs. collectivism are associated with differences in social orientation patterns that affect the ways individuals attend to and think about their worlds
stereotype threatthreat that other's judgments or one's own actions will negatively stereotype one in a domain
symbolizing three dimensions in twoa theory of perception that suggests that people in Western cultures focus more on representations on paper than do people in other cultures, and in particular spend more time learning to interpret pictures

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