PSYC 352 Chapter 4 Vocabulary

blueghost's version from 2016-02-28 16:33


Question Answer
accommodationprocess of changing one's understanding of the world to accommodate ideas that conflict with existing concepts
ambivalent attachmentstyle of attachment in which children are uncertain in their response to their mothers, going back and forth between seeking and shunning her attention; mothers characterized as insensitive and less involved
animismbelief that all things, including inanimate objects, are alive
assimilationprocess of fitting new ideas into a preexisting understanding of the world
attachmentspecial bond that develops between infant and primary caregiver and provides infant with emotional security; quality of attachment has lifelong effects on relationships with loved ones
avoidant attachmentstyle of attachment in which children shun their mothers; mothers suspected of being intrusive and over stimulating
behavioral inhibitionaspect of temperament where a child shows signs of wariness, discomfort, or distress when confronted with novel, challenging, or unfamiliar situations; also known as fearfulness or shyness
centrationtendency to focus on a single aspect of a problem
cognitive developmentspeciality in psych that studies how thinking skills develop over time; major theory of this is that of Piaget
conservationawareness that physical quantities remain the same even when they change shape or appearance
conventional moralitysecond stage of Kohlberg's theory of moral development, emphasizing conformity to rules that are defined by others' approval or society's rules
developmental contextualism contemporary theoretical perspective that proposes that the multiple levels of a developing child are inextricably intertwined and function as an integrated system; stresses that it is the relation between these changing multiple levels that constitutes human development
difficult temperamenttype of temperament that is characterized by intense, irregular, withdrawing style that is generally marked by negative moods
easy temperament type of temperament that is characterized by very regular, adaptable, mildly intense style of behaviour that is positive and responsive
egocentrisminability to step into another's shoes and understand the other person's point of view
ethic of autonomymoral reasoning that emphasizes individual rights and justice; individual choices and freedoms are important to the extent that they do not harm others and others' choices and freedoms
ethic of communitymoral reasoning that emphasizes interpersonal relationships and community; one's duties, obligations, and roles within the group are highlighted
ethic of divinity moral reasoning that emphasizes the centrality of religious beliefs and spirituality
goodness of fithow well a child's temperament fits into the expectations and values of the parents, environment, and culture
great divide theorytheory of cognitive development that suggests that the thought of Westerners is superior to that of people who live in "primitive" societies
irreversibility inability to imagine "undoing" a process
post conventional morality third stage in Kohlberg's theory of moral development, emphasizing moral reasoning on the basis of individual principles and conscience
pre conventional morality first stage of Kohlberg's theory o moral development, emphasizing compliance with rules to avoid punishment and gain rewards
secure attachmentstyle of attachment in which infants are described as warm and responsive to caregiver
slow-to-warm-uptype of temperament in which infants need time to make transitions in activity and experiences; may withdraw initially or respond negatively, given time and support they will adapt and react positively
temperament qualities of responsiveness to the environment that exist from birth and evoke different reactions from people in baby's world; generally considered to be biologically based style of interacting with the world

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