PSYC 352 Chapter 2 Vocabulary

stefaniczala's version from 2016-03-02 19:42


Question Answer
acquiescence biastendency to agree rather than disagree with items on questionnaire
allocentrism refers to collectivism on the individual-level; how individuals may act in accordance with collectivistic cultural frameworks
back translationtechnique of translating research protocols that involves taking the protocol as it was developed in one language and translating it into target language and then back to the original language; if same as original, generally considered equivalent
biasdifferences that do not have exactly the same meaning within/across cultures; lack of equivalence
conceptual biasdegree to which a theory or set of hypotheses being compared across cultures are equivalent; whether they have the same meaning and relevance in all the cultures being compared
contextual factorsany variable that can explain, partially or fully, observed cross-cultural differences; may involve participants' characteristics or cultural characteristics
context variablesvariables that operationalize aspects of culture believed to produce differences in psych variables; measured in unpacking studies
cross-cultural comparisonsstudy that compares two or more cultures on a psych variable of interest
cross-cultural validation studystudy that examines whether a measure of psych construct that was originally generated in a single culture is applicable/meaningful and therefore equivalent in another culture
cultural attribution fallaciesmistaken interpretation in cross-cultural comparison studies; researchers infer something cultural produced the differences observed in study, despite fact that it may not be empirically justified and that they did not actually measure those cultural factors
decenterconcept underlying the procedure of back translation; involves eliminating any culture-specific concepts of the original language or translating them equivalently into the target language
ecological- (cultural) level studiesa study in which countries or cultures, not individuals, are the unit of analysis
equivalence state or condition of similarity in conceptual meaning/empirical method between cultures that allows comparisons to be meaningful; a lack of bias
experimentsstudies in which researchers create conditions to establish cause-effect relationships; random assignment to conditions and then results compared across conditions
exploratory studiesdesigned to examine the existence of cross-cultural similarities/differences; generally simple, quasi-experimental designs comparing two or more cultures on a psych variable
extreme response biastendency to use the ends of a scale regardless of item content
factor analysisstatistical technique that allows researchers to ID groups of items on a questionnaire; grouped items thought to represent mental constructs underlying responses to the items
hypothesis-testing studiesstudies designed to test why cultural differences exist; go beyond quasi-experimental by including context variable or using experiments
idiocentrism refers to individualism on the individual level; how individuals may act in accordance with individualistic cultural frameworks
indigenous cultural studiesstudies that use rich, complex, and in-depth descriptions of cultures/cultural differences to predict and test for differences in a psych variable
individual-level measures of culturemeasures that assess psych dimensions related to meaningful dimensions of cultural variability and that are completed by individuals; often ensure samples of different cultures actually have cultural characteristics thought to differentiate them; often used as context variables
internal reliability degree to which different items in a questionnaire are related to each other, and give consistent responses
level-oriented studiesstudies that examine cultural differences in mean levels of variables
linguistic biassemantic equivalence between protocols used in cross-cultural comparison studies
linkage studiesstudies that attempt to measure an aspect of culture theoretically hypothesized to produce cultural differences and that empirically link that measured aspect of culture with the dependent variable of interest
measurement biasdegree to which measure used to collect data in different cultures are equally valid and reliable
multi-level studiesstudies that involve data collection at multiple levels of analysis
operationalizationways researchers conceptually define a variable and measure it
priming studiesstudies that involve experimentally manipulating the mindsets of participants and measuring the resulting changes in behaviour
procedural biasdegree to which the procedures used to collect data in different cultures are equivalent to each other
psychometric equivalencedegree to which different measures used in cross-cultural comparison studies are statistically equivalent in the cultures being compared; whether measures are equally valid/reliable in all cultures studied
reliabilitydegree to which a finding, measurement, or statistic is consistent
response biassystematic tendency to respond in certain ways to items/scales
reference group effectidea that people make implicit social comparisons with others when making ratings on sales; people's rating will be influenced by the implicit comparisons they make b/n themselves and others; these influences may make comparing responses across cultures difficult
sampling biasdegree to which different samples in different cultures are equivalent to each other
socially desirable respondingtendencies to give answers on questionnaires that make oneself look good
structural equivalence degree to which a measure used in a cross-cultural study produces the same factor analysis results in the different countries being compared
structure-oriented studiesstudies that examine whether constructs are conceptualized the same way across cultures, the relationship of a construct to other constructs, or the measurement of a construct
unpackaging studiesstudies that unpackage the contents of the global, unspecific concept of culture into specific, measurable psych constructs and examine their contributions to cultural differences
validity degree to which a finding, measurement, or statistic is accurate/represents what it is supposed to